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Table 1 Association of voided urine cytology with clinicopathological characteristics in UTUC patients

From: Preoperative positive voided urine cytology predicts poor clinical outcomes in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma undergoing nephroureterectomy

  Urine Cytology
Negative (%) Positive (%) P value
Gender
 Male 126 (41.1) 66 (34.7) 0.27
 Female 88 (58.9) 35 (65.3)
Age (years)
 <65 88 (41.1) 33 (32.4) 0.15
  ≥ 65 126 (58.9) 68 (67.3)
Smoking history
 No 141 (65.9) 64 (63.4) 0.7
 Yes 73 (34.1) 37 (36.6)
Alcohol history
 No 164 (76.6) 70 (69.3) 0.17
 Yes 50 (23.4) 31 (30.7)
Hematuria
 No 45 (21.0) 8 (7.9) 0.004
 Yes 169 (79.0) 93 (92.1)
Hypertension
 No 139 (65.0) 55 (54.5) 0.074
 Yes 75 (35.0) 46 (45.5)
Diabetes mellitus
 No 182 (85.0) 84 (83.2) 0.7
 Yes 32 (15) 17 (16.8)
Body mass index
 <30 194 (90.7) 93 (92.1) 0.7
  ≥ 30 20 (9.3) 8 (7.9)
Hydronephrosis
 No 76 (35.5) 40 (39.6) 0.5
 Yes 138 (64.5) 61 (60.4)
Multifocality
 Unifocal 200 (93.5) 86 (85.1) 0.017
 Multifocal 14 (6.5) 15 (14.9)
Size
  ≤ 2 CM 59 (27.6) 25 (24.8) 0.6
 >2 CM 155 (72.4) 76 (75.2)
Bladder instillation
 No 49 (22.9) 26 (25.7) 0.6
 Yes 165 (77.1) 75 (74.3)
Pathologic tumor stage
  ≤ T2 114 (53.3) 45 (44.6) 0.15
  ≥ T3 100 (46.7) 56 (55.4)
Tumor grade
 Low grade 61 (29.2) 15 (15.5) 0.010
 High grade 148 (70.8) 82 (84.5)
Location
 Renal pelvis 101 (48.1) 54 (57.4) 0.13
 Ureter 109 (51.9) 40 (42.6)
Preoperative URS
 No 160 (74.8) 84 (83.2) 0.10
 Yes 54 (25.2) 17 (16.8)
LVI
 No 62 (59.0) 35 (64.8) 0.5
 Yes 43 (41.0) 19 (35.2)
  1. LVI Lymphovascular invasion; CM Centimeter; URS Ureteroscopy