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Table 3 Breast cancer symptoms by ethnicity, stage of cancer and age

From: Presentation of breast cancer, help seeking behaviour and experience of patients in their cancer journey in Singapore: a qualitative study

Ethnicity Stage of cancer (n) Stage of cancer Age group Symptom(s)
CHINESE Early stages (8) I < 40 Lump under armpit
I 40–49 Lump
I 50–59 Lump
I 60–69 Lump
II < 40 Lump
II 40–49 Lump
II 60–69 Lump
II 60–69 Lump
Advanced Stages (9) III < 40 Lump
III < 40 Lump, bean size
III 40–49 Lump, hardness in breast,
III 50–59 Lump
III 60–69 Tightness, prickly/stinging pain and later found a lump
III 60–69 Lump
III 60–69 Lump (bony)
IV 60–69 Protruding grape size lump
IV < 40 Hard lump, until it grew bigger
MALAY Early Stages (7) I < 40 Lump
I 40–49 Lump
I 40–49 Lump
II < 40 Protruding lump on left nipple.
II 50–59 Lump
II 50–59 Lump
II 60–69 A boil of the size of a cherry on the breast
Advanced stages (5) III 40–49 Protruding lump
III 40–49 Mammography positive result
III 50–59 Lump that was painful
III 60–69 One breast bigger and red.
III ≥70 Painful lump
INDIAN Early Stages (5) I 40–49 Had an intuition and went to clinic, Doctor didn’t find lump, she insisted then after 3rd check, lump was found.
I 60–69 Lump (20 cent coin size)
II 40–49 Pain in breast
II ≥70 Swelling lump
II ≥70 Tiny lump,
Advanced Stages (2) III 40–49 Pain in breast
IV 60–69 Inverted nipple, skin ‘pocket’, sometimes got lump
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