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Table 7 Results reported by the impact studies

From: Development, validation and effectiveness of diagnostic prediction tools for colorectal cancer in primary care: a systematic review

Study ID Prediction tool Country Study design Intended purpose Main results for colorectal RAT
Hamilton 2013 [55] RAT for lung, colorectal cancer in two formats: mouse mat and desk top flip chart UK Pre-post study To compare referrals and investigations for colorectal and lung cancer before and after the implementation of RATs 26% increase in 2-week referrals (1173 before, 1477 after); 15% increase in colonoscopies (1762 before, 2032 after)
No conclusion possible on the effectiveness of the intervention
Emery 2017 [56] Education resource card including RAT for colorectal, lung and prostate cancer Australia Factorial cluster RCT to measure the effect of community-based symptom awareness and GP-based educational interventions on the time to diagnosis (i.e. TDI) for patients presenting with breast, prostate, colorectal or lung cancer in rural Western Australia No significant differences in the median or ln mean TDI at either intervention level:
Colorectal cancer:
-GP intervention vs control: median TDI 124 vs 122 days; ln mean difference − 0.03 95% CI − 0.51–0.45 P = 0.42
-community intervention vs control: median TDI 107 vs 133 days; ln mean difference − 0.26 95% CI − 0.63–0.11 P = 0.16;
Price 2019 [16] Access to any RAT and/or Qcancer tool in any format UK Cross-sectional survey at GP practice level To compare the mean 2WW referral rates between GP practices reporting access to RAT and/or Qcancer and those who reported no access to these tools No statistically significant difference between mean referral rates between practices reporting access or no access to RAT and/or Qcancer: mean difference of 3.1 referrals per 100,000 population (95% CI − 5.5, 11.7, p-value 0.48)
  1. Abbreviations: ANOVA Analysis of variance, GP General practitioner, NHS National Health Service, OR Odds ratio, RAT(s) Risk assessment tool(s), RCT Randomised controlled trial, SR1 Systematic review 1, TDI Total diagnostic interval, UK United Kingdom