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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Development, validation and effectiveness of diagnostic prediction tools for colorectal cancer in primary care: a systematic review

Population Included: adult symptomatic patients (with symptoms being indicative of cancer) presenting at primary care or patients referred with symptoms indicative of cancer
Excluded: asymptomatic patients (screening population).
Technology Included: Diagnostic prediction models, based on 2 or more featuresa, that estimate the risk of prevalent but undiagnosed colorectal cancer.
Excluded: prognostic or screening prediction models
Statistical tools that estimate the probability of developing cancer over a defined period of time.
Prediction models that did not include colorectal cancer.
Setting Included: primary care
Excluded: secondary care; on-line tools developed for use by the general population
Study design Included:
- any design for the development, validation or accuracy of diagnostic prediction models (as defined under ‘Technology’);
- comparative studies of diagnostic tools that assessed impact in clinical practice (Randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after, and interrupted time-series;
studies analysing national trends in cancer diagnosis before and after diagnostic tools became available)
Excluded: uncontrolled studies reporting qualitative data
Comparison Usual care or the use of another diagnostic tool
Outcomes For studies reporting development, validation and/or accuracy of prediction models:
Estimates of the risk of being diagnosed with cancer (e.g. ORs, HRs)
Any details on the development, validation or accuracy of the tool:
Model development: method; assumptions; predictors; shrinkage; coefficient weighting
Model evaluation (validation)
Assessing (quantifying) model performance: discrimination (ability to discriminate participants with or without the outcome, e.g. area under the ROC curve); calibration (agreement between predicted and observed outcome); overall performance (for discrimination and calibration, e.g. R2); classification (e.g. sensitivity, specificity, predictive values)
For studies reporting evaluations of the impact of tools:
Primary outcomes
- patient-related outcome measures (including the number of cancer diagnoses, time to cancer diagnosis, stage of cancer at diagnosis, resection rates, patient health-related quality of life, other patient-reported outcome measures);
- survival;
- economic outcome measures (resource use, cost per diagnosis), cost per QALY;
Secondary outcomes
- referral patterns.
Exclude: models that report the risk of survival (or stage at diagnosis etc.)
Publication type Included: Published in full and in English
Excluded: commentaries, letters
  1. Abbreviations: HR Hazard ratio, N/A Not applicable, OR Odds ratio, QALY Quality-adjusted life year, ROC Receiver operating characteristic
  2. Note: a Features include symptoms and other information, such as elicited signs, patient characteristics and test results