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Table 4 Uni- and multivariate analyses of factors associated with 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates in gMANEC patients

From: Effect of sarcopenia on short- and long-term outcomes in patients with gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms after radical gastrectomy: results from a large, two-institution series

Variable Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
3-year OS 3-year OS 3-year RFS 3-year RFS
HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P
Gender
 Male 1     1    
 Female 0.788 (0.341–1.823) 0.578    1.020 (0.431–2.412) 0.964   
Age (years)
 < 65 1     1    
 ≥ 65 1.234 (0.616–2.472) 0.554    0.929 (0.431–2.002) 0.851   
BMI(kg/m2)
 < 25 1     1    
 ≥ 25 0.856 (0.300–2.442) 0.772    0.809 (0.243–2.687) 0.729   
ASA
 1 1   1   1   1  
 2 2.261 (1.038–4.929) 0.04 1.548 (0.701–3.422) 0.280 2.573 (1.141–5.801) 0.041 2.089 (0.917–4.758) 0.080
 3 3.732 (1.371–10.156) 0.01 1.898 (0.628–5.730) 0.256 1.563 (0.429–5.695) 0.499 0.744 (0.197–2.813) 0.663
Comorbidity
 No 1     1    
 Yes 0.846 (0.401–1.789) 0.662    0.528 (0.245–1.139) 0.104   
Tumor (mm)
 < 50 1     1    
 ≥ 50 1.528 (0.754–3.098) 0.239    1.264 (0.591–2.701) 0.546   
Tumor location
 Upper 1     1    
 Middle 0.573 (0.188–1.741) 0.326    0.802 (0.255–2.521) 0.706   
 Lower 0.852 (0.369–1.970) 0.708    1.100 (0.456–2.656) 0.832   
 Mix 1.625 (0.583–4.531) 0.353    1.140 (0.317–4.094) 0.841   
 T stage         
 T1 + T2 1   1   1    
 T3 + T4 2.197 (1.082–4.464) 0.029 2.145 (0.985–4.668) 0.055 1.753 (0.818–3.756) 0.149   
 N stage         
 N0 1   1   1   1  
 N1 4.586 (1.756–11.979) 0.002 3.134 (1.148–8.551) 0.026 4.558 (1.568–13.249) 0.005 3.956 (1.313–11.917) 0.015
Surgical method
 Open 1     1    
 Laparoscopic 0.698 (0.330–1.474) 0.346    0.778 (0.340–1.779) 0.552   
Gastrectomy extent
 Total 1     1    
 Distal 0.691 (0.310–1.540) 0.366    1.201 (0.539–2.673) 0.654   
 Proximal 0 (0) 0.982    0(0) 0.984   
Ki-67 positive index (%)
 < 60 1   1   1   1  
 ≥ 60 4.874 (1.872–12.689) 0.001 3.710(1.372–10.033) 0.010 11.553(2.729–48.913) 0.001 8.210(1.912–35.256) 0.005
Complication
 No 1     1    
 Yes 1.645 (0.820–3.298) 0.161    1.200 (0.525–2.742) 0.666   
Adjuvant chemotherapy
 No 1     1    
 Yes 1.428 (0.697–2.925) 0.33    1.248 (0.579–2.691) 0.572   
Martin et al. [27]
 High 1     1    
 Low 1.667 (0.789–3.523) 0.181    1.868 (0.817–4.272) 0.138   
 SMI         
 High 1   1   1   1  
 Low 2.639 (1.270–5.483) 0.009 2.735 (1.246–6.001) 0.012 2.356 (1.077–5.153) 0.032 2.825 (1.250–6.386) 0.013
  1. gMANEC gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma, HR Hazard ratio, CI Confidence interval, BMI Body mass index, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, SMI Skeletal muscle index