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Table 3 Uni- and multivariate analyses of factors associated with 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates in g-NENs patients

From: Effect of sarcopenia on short- and long-term outcomes in patients with gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms after radical gastrectomy: results from a large, two-institution series

Variable Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
3-year OS 3-year OS 3-year RFS 3-year RFS
HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P
Gender
 Male 1     1    
 Female 0.650 (0.338–1.248) 0.195    0.813 (0.419–1.580) 0.542   
Age (years)
 < 65 1     1    
 ≥ 65 1.112 (0.669–1.847) 0.683    0.851 (0.488–1.483) 0.569   
BMI(kg/m2)
 < 25 1     1    
 ≥ 25 0.694 (0.330–1.460) 0.336    0.709 (0.320–1.570) 0.396   
ASA
 1 1   1   1   1  
 2 1.934 (1.118–3.347) 0.018 1.869 (1.069–3.269) 0.028 2.118 (1.196–3.749) 0.010 2.191 (1.223–3.924) 0.008
 3 2.54 (1.172–5.504) 0.018 2.029 (0.917–4.486) 0.081 1.294 (0.487–3.437) 0.605 0.875 (0.324–2.361) 0.791
Comorbidity
 No 1     1    
 Yes 1.346 (0.751–2.411) 0.318    0.993 (0.552–1.785) 0.981   
Tumor (mm)
 < 50 1     1    
 ≥ 50 1.596 (0.957–2.659) 0.073    1.449 (0.841–2.496) 0.181   
Tumor location
 Upper 1     1    
 Middle 0.664 (0.314–1.403) 0.283    0.778 (0.349–1.734) 0.540   
 Lower 0.917 (0.484–1.735) 0.789    1.104 (0.571–2.135) 0.769   
 Mix 1.253 (0.593–2.649) 0.555    1.147 (0.494–2.664) 0.749   
T stage
 T1 + T2 1   1   1    
 T3 + T4 1.748 (1.054–2.898) 0.031 1.445 (0.843–2.476) 0.181 1.568 (0.914–2.691) 0.103   
N stage
 N0 1   1   1   1  
 N1 5.032 (2.385–10.616) <.001 3.554 (1.624–7.778) 0.002 5.882 (2.507–13.804) <.001 4.710 (1.966–11.283) 0.001
Surgical method
 Open 1     1    
 Laparoscopic 0.797 (0.472–1.344) 0.395    0.875 (0.496–1.546) 0.647   
Gastrectomy extent
 Total 1     1    
 Distal 0.74 (0.400–1.368) 0.337    1.080 (0.584–1.994) 0.807   
 Proximal 0.418 (0.058–3.029) 0.388    0.528 (0.072–3.850) 0.529   
Pathological type
 NET 1     1    
 NEC 2.352 (0.712–7.773) 0.161    1.521 (0.524–4.414) 0.441   
 MANEC 1.839 (0.563–6.008) 0.313    1.172 (0.410–3.350) 0.767   
Ki-67 positive index (%)
 < 60 1   1   1   1  
 ≥ 60 4.753 (2.469–9.152) <.001 3.492 (1.772–6.879) <.001 5.978 (2.810–12.718) <.001 4.304 (1.981–9.350) <.001
Complication
 No 1     1    
 Yes 1.645 (0.994–2.723) 0.053    1.245 (0.699–2.220) 0.457   
Adjuvant chemotherapy
 No 1     1    
 Yes 1.409 (0.843–2.355) 0.191    1.559 (0.894–2.719) 0.117   
Martin et al. [27]
 High 1     1    
 Low 1.181 (0.709–1.968) 0.523    1.377 (0.790–2.400) 0.260   
 SMI         
 High 1   1   1   1  
 Low 2.061 (1.243–3.420) 0.005 2.098 (1.239–3.553) 0.006 1.758 (1.025–3.018) 0.041 1.780 (1.029–3.076) 0.039
  1. g-NENs gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms, HR Hazard ratio, CI Confidence interval, BMI Body mass index, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, NET Neuroendocrine tumor, NEC Neuroendocrine carcinoma, MANEC Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma, SMI Skeletal muscle index