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Table 3 Hazard ratios for survival adjusted for by propensity analysis

From: Limb salvage versus amputation in patients with osteosarcoma of the extremities: an update in the modern era using the National Cancer Database

  Total Limb Salvage (n = 1316) Amputation (n = 409)
HR P 95% CI HR P 95% CI HR P 95% CI
Surgery Type     0.71 0.000 0.59–0.85 1.42 0.001 1.13–1.63
Age; median (IQR) 1.02 0.000 1.01–1.02 1.02 0.000 1.01–1.02 1.01 0.001 1.01–1.02
 < 20 Reference         
 20–39 1.15 0.195 0.93–1.42 1.11 0.413 0.86–1.44 1.12 0.549 0.77–1.64
 40–59 1.29 0.056 0.99–1.67 1.33 0.076 0.97–1.82 1.20 0.446 0.75–1.94
 60+ 2.33 0.000 1.72–3.16 2.57 0.000 1.74–3.8 1.94 0.010 1.17–3.21
Sex
 Male          
 Female 0.87 0.111 0.73–1.03 0.79 0.030 0.64–0.98 1.10 0.530 0.82–1.49
Race
 White Reference         
 Black 0.98 0.834 0.78–1.22 0.82 0.172 0.61–1.09 1.29 0.160 0.9–1.85
 Asian/Pacific Islander 1.01 0.974 0.66–1.53 1.14 0.619 0.69–1.88 0.75 0.465 0.35–1.61
 Other/Unknown 1.36 0.107 0.94–1.99 1.27 0.321 0.8–2.01 1.63 0.139 0.85–3.1
Insurance Status
 Uninsured 0.87 0.452 0.59–1.26 0.87 0.556 0.55–1.39 0.94 0.837 0.5–1.75
 Insured Reference         
 Medicaid 0.69 0.001 0.55–0.85 0.61 0.000 0.47–0.8 0.85 0.38 0.59–1.22
 Medicare 1.53 0.006 1.13–2.07 1.17 0.461 0.77–1.77 2.29 0.001 1.44–3.65
Zipcode Income
 < $38,000 Reference         
 $38,000–$47,999 0.81 0.099 0.64–1.04 0.65 0.007 0.48–0.89 1.17 0.450 0.78–1.76
 $48,000–$62,999 0.77 0.032 0.6–0.98 0.87 0.342 0.65–1.16 0.62 0.033 0.4–0.96
 $63,000+ 0.92 0.468 0.72–1.16 1.01 0.950 0.76–1.34 0.77 0.250 0.49–1.2
Zipcode Education
 21% or more Reference         
 13–20.9% 0.96 0.713 0.75–1.22 0.91 0.551 0.68–1.23 1.06 0.769 0.71–1.6
 7–12.9% 0.90 0.356 0.71–1.13 0.94 0.678 0.71–1.25 0.84 0.424 0.56–1.28
 < 7% 0.98 0.851 0.76–1.25 1.11 0.484 0.82–1.5 0.73 0.176 0.46–1.15
Urban
 Metro 0.49 0.016 0.28–0.87 0.48 0.108 0.2–1.17 0.60 0.187 0.28–1.28
 Urban 0.52 0.035 0.29–0.96 0.55 0.196 0.22–1.37 0.57 0.193 0.25–1.32
 Rural Reference         
Distance from Hospital (Miles); mean (95% CI) 1.00 0.547 1–1 1.00 0.536 1–1 1.00 0.982 1–1
Year of Diagnosis 1.00 0.771 0.98–1.03 0.99 0.585 0.96–1.03 1.04 0.083 0.99–1.1
 < 2006 Reference         
 2006–2010 1.06 0.614 0.84–1.33 1.01 0.935 0.77–1.34 1.18 0.414 0.79–1.77
 2011–2015 1.01 0.949 0.78–1.3 0.91 0.529 0.67–1.23 1.40 0.138 0.9–2.18
Location
 Lower Limb Reference         
 Upper Limb 1.52 0.000 1.23–1.89 1.38 0.013 1.07–1.78 2.24 0.000 1.51–3.33
Long vs Short Bone
 Short Bone Reference         
 Long Bone 3.89 0.000 2.44–6.19 2.25 0.007 1.24–4.06 6.68 0.000 3.2–13.95
AJCC Clinical Stage
 Stage 1A or 1B          
 Stage 2A or 2B Reference         
 Stage 3 1.34 0.195 0.86–2.07 1.70 0.045 1.01–2.87 0.79 0.573 0.35–1.79
 Stage 4A or 4B 2.82 0.000 2.33–3.4 2.88 0.000 2.28–3.64 2.73 0.000 1.96–3.78
Osteosarcoma Type
 Osteosarcoma NOS          
 Chondroblastic 0.90 0.324 0.74–1.11 1.07 0.573 0.84–1.37 0.65 0.023 0.45–0.94
 Fibroblastic 0.63 0.067 0.39–1.03 0.46 0.024 0.24–0.9 1.15 0.708 0.56–2.34
 Telangiectatic 0.95 0.775 0.65–1.38 0.96 0.870 0.61–1.51 0.99 0.974 0.48–2.03
 Central 0.71 0.288 0.38–1.34 0.76 0.461 0.37–1.56 0.79 0.740 0.19–3.2
 Surface/Juxtacortical          
Tumor Size (cm); mean (95% CI) 1.01 0.002 1–1.01 1.00 0.174 1–1.01 1.02 0.000 1.01–1.03
 < 8 cm Reference         
 > 8 cm 1.68 0.000 1.38–2.04 1.44 0.002 1.15–1.81 2.27 0.000 1.53–3.39
Presence of Metastases at Dx
 No metastases Reference         
 metastases 2.93 0.000 2.44–3.53 3.00 0.000 2.39–3.76 2.79 0.000 2.02–3.86
Comorbidities at Dx
 No comorbidities Reference         
 1 or more 1.02 0.916 0.77–1.34 0.86 0.429 0.6–1.24 1.30 0.247 0.83–2.01
Received Adjuvant Chemotherapy          
 No Reference         
 Yes 0.58 0.001 0.42–0.79 0.80 0.326 0.51–1.25 0.38 0.000 0.24–0.59
Surgical Margins
 Clear Reference         
 Positive 2.86 0.000 2.11–3.88 3.36 0.000 2.41–4.69 1.85 0.116 0.86–3.99
Unplanned Readmission After Surgery
 No Unplanned Readmiss Reference         
 Unplanned Readmission 0.69 0.121 0.43–1.1 0.69 0.192 0.4–1.2 0.67 0.374 0.27–1.62
Inpatient Days after Surgery; mean (95% CI) 1.00 0.801 0.99–1.01 1.00 0.942 0.99–1.01 1.01 0.164 0.99–1.03
Days from Dx to Surgery; mean (95% CI) 1.00 0.602 1–1 1.00 0.144 1–1 1.00 0.321 1–1
Days from Dx to Treatment Commencing; mean (95% CI) 1.00 0.020 1–1.01 1.01 0.000 1–1.01 1.00 0.528 0.99–1