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Table 1 Demographics and clinicopathologic characteristics of study participants

From: Nomogram for prediction of the international study Group of Liver Surgery (ISGLS) grade B/C Posthepatectomy liver failure in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients: an external validation and prospective application study

Variables Training Cohort
(n = 900)
Internal validation Cohort (n = 300) External validation Cohort (n = 387) P value
Age (years) 49 (42, 58) 49 (41, 55) 52 (45, 59) <0.001
Sex, Male / Female 782 (86.9) / 118 (13.1) 261 (87.0) / 39 (13.0) 344 (88.9) / 43 (1.11) <0.001
Height (cm) 166 (161, 170) 165 (160, 170) 165 (161, 170) 0.936
Weight (kg) 61 (55, 68) 60 (54, 67) 60 (54,69) 0.540
BMI (kg/m2) 22.3 (20.0, 24.4) 21.8 (20.0, 24.5) 22.1 (20.1, 24.5) 0.540
Hypertension, Yes / No 67 (7.4%) / 833 (92.6%) 19 (6.3%) / 281 (93.7%) 54 (14.0%) / 333 (86.0%) <0.001
Diabetes, Yes / No 83 (9.2%) / 817 (90.8%) 21 (7.0%) / 279 (93.0%) 29 (7.5%) / 358 (92.5%) 0.373
HBsAg, Positive / Negative 259 (28.8%) / 641 (71.2%) 81 (27.0%) / 219 (73.0%) 90 (23.3%) / 297 (96.7%) 0.124
HBV-DNA, ≥2000 / < 2000 (IU/ml) 555 (61.7%) / 345 (38.4%) 179 (59.7%) / 121 (40.3%) 175 (45.2%) / 212 (54.8%) <0.001
PLT (×  109/L) 199.9 (155.0, 260.0) 207.1 (160.0, 261.7) 149.0 (100.0, 193.0) <0.001
T-Bil (μmol/L) 12.9 (9.5, 17.2) 13.0 (9.7, 17.8) 14.2 (10.7, 18.9) <0.001
PA (mg/L) 178.0 (135.0, 224.0) 173.0 (130.0, 217.0) 202.0 (150.0, 244.0) <0.001
ALB (g/L) 39.6 ± 4.6 39.3 ± 4.8 41.5 ± 4.4 <0.001
ALT (U/L) 36.0 (24.0, 52.5) 34.0 (25.0, 49.0) 34.0 (24.0, 54.7) 0.788
AST (U/L) 40.0 (30.0, 58.0) 38.0 (29.0, 55.0) 34.1 (26.0, 54.0) <0.001
CR (μmol/L) 77.0 (68.0, 88.0) 79.0 (68.0, 89.0) 69.0 (61.0, 78.0) <0.001
BUN (mmol/L) 4.9 (4.1, 5.9) 5.0 (4.2, 5.9) 5.4 (4.5, 6.4) <0.001
PT (s) 12.8 (12.1, 18.6) 13.0 (12.2, 18.0) 12.0 (11.5, 18.8) <0.001
INR 1.05 (0.98, 1.13) 1.06 (1.00, 1.16) 1.01 (0.96, 1.07) <0.001
AFP ≥400 / < 400 (ng/mL) 388 (43.1%) / 512 (56.9%) 142 (47.3%) / 158 (52.7%) 130 (33.6%) / 257 (66.4%) <0.001
CSPH, Yes / NO 75 (8.3) / 825 (91.7) 31 (10.3) / 269 (89.7) 95 (24.5) / 292 (75.5) <0.001
Child-Pugh grade A / B (7 score) 858 (95.3%) / 42 (4.7%) 284 (94.7%) / 16 (5.3%) 373 (96.4%) / 14 (3.6%) 0.541
MELD score 4 (2, 7) 5 (3, 7) 4 (2, 5) <0.001
ALBI score −2.63 ± 0.41 −2.61 ± 0.45 −2.76 ± 0.40 <0.001
PALBI score −2.47 (−2.67, −2.25) −2.43 (−2.67, −2.17) −2.64 (−2.80, − 2.41) <0.001
APRI score 0.52 (0.35, 0.84) 0.48 (0.34, 0.85) 0.64 (0.38, 1.19) <0.001
Tumour size (cm) 6.1 (4.0, 17.5) 6.8 (4.0, 16.5) 5.7 (4, 18) 0.387
Tumour number, Multiple/ Single 239 (26.6%) / 661 (73.4%) 73 (24.3%) / 227 (75.7%) 101 (25.9%) / 286 (74.1%) <0.001
Portal invasion, Yes / No 103 (11.4%) / 761 (84.6%) 29 (9.7%) / 271 (90.3%) 30 (7.7%) / 357 (92.3%) 0.393
BCLC stage     0.001
 0 31 (3.4%) 12 (4.0%) 29 (7.5%)  
 A 560 (62.2%) 197 (65.7%) 242 (62.5%)  
 B 206 (22.9%) 62 (20.6%) 82 (21.3%)  
 C 103 (11.5%) 29 (9.7%) 34 (8.7%)  
Operation time (min) 193 (160, 240) 200 (165, 250) 190 (160, 240) 0.172
Blood loss, ≥400 / < 400 (mL) 346 (38.4%) / 554 (61.6%) 114 (38.0%) / 186 (62.0%) 136 (35.1%) / 251 (64.9%) <0.001
Blood transfusion, Yes / No 59 (6.6%) / 841 (93.4%) 21 (7.0%) / 279 (93.0%) 42 (10.9%) / 345 (89.1%) 0.026
eTLV (mL) 1212.2 ± 109.6 1208.6 ± 107.5 1212.0 ± 113.0 0.874
FLR (mL) 939.6 (791.2, 1042.5) 919.8 (780.8, 1028.8) 948.2 (840.6, 1045.9) 0.053
sFLR (%) 69.0 (34.0, 85.0) 67.9 (36.0, 84.2) 69.6 (37.0, 86.0) 0.013
Hepatic vascular occlusion     0.903
 No 243 (27.0%) 80 (26.7%) 111 (28.7%)  
 HVC 283 (31.4%) 89 (29.7%) 114 (29.5%)  
 THVE 374 (41.6%) 131 (43.7%) 162 (41.8%)  
Cirrhosis, Yes / No 389 (43.2%) / 511 (56.8%) 149 (49.7%) / 151 (50.3%) 190 (49.1%) / 197 (51.9%) 0.052
PHLF 214 (23.8%) / 686 (76.2%) 63 (21.0%) / 237 (79.0%) 145 (37.5) / 242 (62.5%) <0.001
 Grade A 93 (10.3%) 30 (10.0%) 67 (17.3%) <0.001
 Grade B 114 (12.7%) 32 (10.7%) 70 (18.1%)
 Grade C 7 (0.8%) 1 (0.3%) 8 (2.1%)
 Grade B/C 121 (13.5%)/779 (86.5%) 33 (11.0%) / 267 (89.0%) 78 (20.2%) / 309 (79.8%) 0.001
  1. Note: Data are mean ± SD or median (IQR 25–75) unless otherwise indicated
  2. Abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, HbsAg Hepatitis B surface antigen, HBV-DNA Hepatitis B virus DNA, PLT Platelet, T-Bil Total bilirubin, PA Prealbumin, ALB Albumin, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, CR Creatinine, BUN Blood urine nitrogen, PT Prothrombin time, INR International normalized ratio, MELD Model for end-stage liver disease, ALBI Albumin–bilirubin, PALBI Platelet-albumin-bilirubin, APRI Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index, AFP α-Fetoprotein, CSPH Clinically signifcant portal hypertension, BCLC Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer, eTLV Estimated total liver volume, FLR Future liver remnant, sFLR Standard future Liver remnant, HVC Hemilhepatic vascular control, THVE Total hepatic vascular exclusion, PHLF Posthepatectomy liver failure