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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors with the OS of p-NENs using Cox Regression proportional hazard models

From: World Health Organization grading classification for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: a comprehensive analysis from a large Chinese institution

Factor Univariate Analysis WHO 2017 criteria Multivariate AnalysisA WHO 2010 criteria Multivariate AnalysisA
HR(95%CIs) P HR(95%CIs) P HR(95%CIs) P
Gender
 MaleB    
 Female 0.953 (0.467–3.252) 0.537   
Age, yr.
  < Median    
  ≥ Median 1.211 (0.587–1.256) 0.079   
Tumor location
 Head    
 Body/tail 1.436 (0.912–2.579) 0.408   
Functional status
 Functional    
 Non-functional 1.725 (0.436–3.926) 0.027 0.894 (0.583–1.457) 0.635 0.616 (0.589–1.368) 0.441
Incidental diagnosis
 No    
 Yes 0.984 (0.457–1.562) 0.336   
Radical resection
 Yes    
 No 4.113 (0.384–7.335) < 0.001 0.993 (0.309–1.873) 0.009 1.023 (0.574–2.359) 0.015
Postoperative medical therapy
 Yes
 No 1.518 (0.366–2.735) 0.045 0.845 (0.673–1.419) 0.357 0.903 (0.449–1.525) 0.745
Tumor diameter
  < Median
  ≥ Median 1.005 (0.567–2.138) 0.024 0.665 (0.357–1.983) 0.341 0.883 (0.436–1.843) 0.452
Vascular infiltration
 No
 Yes 2.138 (0.543–4.113) 0.037 1.255 (0.843–2.059) 0.012 0.993 (0.519–1.725) 0.039
Lymph involvement
 No
 Yes 3.542 (0.343–6.25) 0.008 2.357 (0.331–5.369) 0.036 1.924 (0.536–3.454) 0.025
Distant metastasis
 No
 Yes 5.112 (0.478–10.205) < 0.001 4.124 (0.385–8.359) 0.027 2.445 (0.501–7.374) 0.048
Grading by WHO 2010 criteria
 NET G1/G2  
 “NEC G3” 4.425 (0.454–14.346) < 0.001 NA 2.445 (0.201–13.374) 0.022
Grading by WHO 2017 criteria
 NET G1/G2/G3
 NEC G3 6.634 (0.634–8.257) < 0.001 4.562 (0.983–9.454) 0.016 NA
  1. A: Predicting value of the WHO 2017 and 2010 grading classification for the OS of p-NENs was built and evaluated in separate Regression proportional hazard models
  2. B: The above one of related factor was regarded as a reference in Cox analysis
  3. Abbreviation: OS Overall survival; p-NENs Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; WHO World Health Organization; HR Hazard ratio; CIs Confidence intervals; NET Neuroendocrine tumors; NEC Neuroendocrine carcinoma; G Grading; NA Not applicable