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Table 2 Median levels of cytokines before and after MWA

From: Effect of microwave ablation treatment of hepatic malignancies on serum cytokine levels

Cytokine

pre-MWA (pg/mL)

24 h post-MWA (pg/mL)

15 days post-MWA (pg/mL)

30 days post-MWA (pg/mL)

IFN-γ

3.250 (95% CI 2.72–6.12)

3.47 (95% CI 2.80–5.39)

5.71 (95% CI 5.15–7.51) *

5.65 (95% CI 4.47–6.71) *

IL-2

2.77 (95% CI 2.77–3.38)

6.69 (95% CI 3.31–11.56)*,

4.82 (95% CI 4.41–5.53) *

4.14 (95% CI 3.51–4.89) *

IL-12 p40

4.16 (95% CI 3.94–5.56)

3.94 (95% CI 3.94–3.94)

6.86 (95% CI 5.90–7.63)

6.81 (95% CI 6.17–7.90) *

IL-12 p70

3.00 (95% CI 2.84–4.01)

4.72 (95% CI 4.17–6.01)

5.49 (95% CI 4.90–6.79) *

4.61 (95% CI 4.07–5.75) *

IL-1β

3.58 (95% CI 2.99–7.46)

3.80 (95% CI 3.22–4.55)

16.30 (95% CI 9.67–19.79) *,

2.99 (95% CI 2.99–5.00)

IL-6

4.63 (95% CI 3.00–6.72)

3.22 (95% CI 2.86–3.65)

15.68 (95% CI 13.90–26.99) *,

2.79 (95% CI 2.79–4.90)

IL-8

2.92 (95% CI 2.92–4.19)

3.15 (95% CI 2.92–3.45)

10.07 (95% CI 6.38–19.91) *,

2.92 (95% CI 2.92–2.92)

IL-10

5.42 (95% CI 3.66–9.01)

4.95 (95% CI 3.50–6.33)

18.32 (95% CI 12.71–26.22) *,

3.17 (95% CI 2.42–5.46)

TNF-α

7.19 (95% CI 5.53–10.97)

8.29 (95% CI 7.49–9.81)

20.77 (95% CI 7.87–37.85) *,

3.30 (95% CI 3.30–4.28)

VEGF

2.15 (95% CI 1.66–48.85)

2.39 (95% CI 1.77–50.28)

4.53 (95% CI 3.67–53.47)

3.39 (95% CI 2.66–44.77)

  1. *, p < 0.05 vs. pre-MWA; , > 2-fold vs. pre-MWA