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Table 2 Median levels of cytokines before and after MWA

From: Effect of microwave ablation treatment of hepatic malignancies on serum cytokine levels

Cytokine pre-MWA (pg/mL) 24 h post-MWA (pg/mL) 15 days post-MWA (pg/mL) 30 days post-MWA (pg/mL)
IFN-γ 3.250 (95% CI 2.72–6.12) 3.47 (95% CI 2.80–5.39) 5.71 (95% CI 5.15–7.51) * 5.65 (95% CI 4.47–6.71) *
IL-2 2.77 (95% CI 2.77–3.38) 6.69 (95% CI 3.31–11.56)*, 4.82 (95% CI 4.41–5.53) * 4.14 (95% CI 3.51–4.89) *
IL-12 p40 4.16 (95% CI 3.94–5.56) 3.94 (95% CI 3.94–3.94) 6.86 (95% CI 5.90–7.63) 6.81 (95% CI 6.17–7.90) *
IL-12 p70 3.00 (95% CI 2.84–4.01) 4.72 (95% CI 4.17–6.01) 5.49 (95% CI 4.90–6.79) * 4.61 (95% CI 4.07–5.75) *
IL-1β 3.58 (95% CI 2.99–7.46) 3.80 (95% CI 3.22–4.55) 16.30 (95% CI 9.67–19.79) *, 2.99 (95% CI 2.99–5.00)
IL-6 4.63 (95% CI 3.00–6.72) 3.22 (95% CI 2.86–3.65) 15.68 (95% CI 13.90–26.99) *, 2.79 (95% CI 2.79–4.90)
IL-8 2.92 (95% CI 2.92–4.19) 3.15 (95% CI 2.92–3.45) 10.07 (95% CI 6.38–19.91) *, 2.92 (95% CI 2.92–2.92)
IL-10 5.42 (95% CI 3.66–9.01) 4.95 (95% CI 3.50–6.33) 18.32 (95% CI 12.71–26.22) *, 3.17 (95% CI 2.42–5.46)
TNF-α 7.19 (95% CI 5.53–10.97) 8.29 (95% CI 7.49–9.81) 20.77 (95% CI 7.87–37.85) *, 3.30 (95% CI 3.30–4.28)
VEGF 2.15 (95% CI 1.66–48.85) 2.39 (95% CI 1.77–50.28) 4.53 (95% CI 3.67–53.47) 3.39 (95% CI 2.66–44.77)
  1. *, p < 0.05 vs. pre-MWA; , > 2-fold vs. pre-MWA
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