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Table 3 Association between parental occupational exposure to pesticides and risk of childhood cancer in the Swiss National Cohort; leukaemia and lymphoma subtypes

From: Parental occupational exposure to pesticides and risk of childhood cancer in Switzerland: a census-based cohort study

   Paternal exposure Maternal exposure
Outcome Likelihood of Exposure Cases Partially adjusted model1 Fully adjusted model2 Cases Partially adjusted model1 Fully adjusted model2
   n HR [95%CI] HR [95%CI] n HR [95%CI] HR [95%CI]
LL Minimal 332 1 1 397 1 1
High 19 0.77 [0.48–1.22] 0.73 [0.41–1.31] 8 0.76 [0.38–1.54] 0.69 [0.28–1.71]
AML Minimal 75 1 1 84 1 1
High 3 0.53 [0.17–1.68] 0.97 [0.29–3.25] 1 0.42 [0.06–3.04] 0.86 [0.11–6.50]
NHL Minimal 151 1 1 166 1 1
High 8 0.69 [0.34–1.41] 0.75 [0.32–1.75] 4 0.84 [0.31–2.27] 1.16 [0.41–3.23]
HL Minimal 140 1 1 162 1 1
High 13 1.21 [0.68–2.13] 1.43 [0.74–2.77] 4 0.89 [0.33–2.41] 1.27 [0.45–3.56]
  1. LL: lymphoid leukaemia; AML: acute myeloid leukaemia; NHL: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; HL: Hodgkin lymphoma; HR: Hazard Ratio estimated with a Cox regression; 95%CI: 95% confidence interval
  2. 1Model adjusted for sex, birth year and census year at entry
  3. 2Model adjusted for sex, birth year, census year at entry, maternal age at birth, paternal and maternal occupational exposure to benzene, education level of the reference person in the household, SEP-index, degree of urbanization, residential exposure to background ionizing radiation, residential exposure to ambient NO2 (All variables assessed at entry into the cohort)