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Table 1 Comparison of baseline clinical characteristics (High EASIX vs. Low EASIX)

From: Endothelial activation and stress index (EASIX) is a reliable predictor for overall survival in patients with multiple myeloma

  High EASIX
(log2 EASIX > 1.87)
(n = 372)
Low EASIX
(log2 EASIX ≤1.87)
(n = 805)
p-value
Age > 65 170 (45.7) 359 (44.7) 0.753
Sex    < 0.001
 Male 234 (62.9) 405 (50.3)  
 Female 138 (37.1) 400 (49.7)  
Immunoglobulin (Ig) type    < 0.001
 Ig G 162 (45.8) 453 (59.3)  
 Ig M 2 (0.6) 5 (0.6)  
 Ig A 67 (18.9) 168 (22.0)  
 Ig D 11 (3.1) 13 (1.7)  
 Light chain only 112 (31.6) 125 (16.4)  
ECOG PS ≥ 2 92 (24.7) 157 (19.5) 0.046
Calcium ≥10.2 mg/dl 103 (27.8) 82 (10.2) < 0.001
Hb < 10.0 g/dl 273 (73.4) 389 (48.3) < 0.001
Chromosomal abnormality    < 0.001
 High risk 63 (16.9) 71 (8.8)  
 Standard risk 262 (70.4) 650 (80.7)  
 Non-assessable 47 (12.6) 84 (10.4)  
ISS    < 0.001
 I 21 (5.6) 286 (35.5)  
 II 73 (19.6) 328 (40.7)  
 III 271 (72.8) 180 (22.4)  
 Non-assessable 7 (1.9) 11 (1.4)  
R-ISS    < 0.001
 I 7 (1.9) 206 (25.6)  
 II 181 (48.7) 515 (64.0)  
 III 162 (43.5) 35 (4.3)  
 Non-assessable 22 (5.9) 49 (6.1)  
Year of diagnosis    0.073
 2003–2005 24 (6.5) 79 (9.8)  
 2006–2008 48 (12.9) 135 (16.8)  
 2009–2011 84 (22.6) 168 (20.9)  
 2012–2014 128 (34.4) 233 (28.9)  
 2015–2017 88 (23.7) 190 (23.6)  
ASCT 128 (34.4) 367 (45.6) < 0.001
Treatment regimen during entire treatment    
 Thalidomide-based therapy 195 (52.4) 513 (63.7) < 0.001
 Lenalidomide-based therapy 153 (41.1) 461 (57.3) 0.612
 Pomalidomide-based therapy 49 (13.2) 90 (11.2) 0.332
 Bortezomib-based therapy 317 (85.2) 682 (84.7) 0.861
 Carfilzomib-based therapy 35 (9.4) 77 (9.6) 1.000
 Daratumumab-based therapy 19 (5.1) 40 (5.0) 1.000
  1. Abbreviations: n Number, ECOG PS Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status, LDH Lactate Dehydrogenase, UNL Upper limit of the normal value, Hb Hemoglobin, ISS International Staging System, R-ISS Revised-International Staging System, ASCT Autologous stem cell transplantation