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Table 2 The association between the use of opioid and its derivatives, and other variables (cigarette smoking and alcohol) and the incidence of lung cancer

From: Is opium use associated with an increased risk of lung cancer? A case-control study

Variable Cases N (%) Controls N (%) Crude OR (95%CI) Adjusted OR (95%CI)a
Opium use
 Never 57 (40. 71) 225 (80.36) Reference Reference
 Ever 83 (59.28) 55 (19.64) 9.73 (5.21–18.15) 5.95 (1.87–18.92)
Amount of daily opium use
 Never used 57 (40.71) 225 (80.36) Reference Reference
 ≤ Median (4.5 g per day)b 36 (25.71) 29 (10.36) 6.83 (3.40–13.73) 3.81 (1.13–12.77)
 > Median (4.5 g per day) 47 (33.57) 26 (9.29) 12.46 (5.76–26.92) 9.36 (2.05–42.72)
Duration of opium use
 Never used 57 (40.71) 225 (80.36) Reference Reference
 ≤ Median (20 years) b 41 (29.29) 30 (10.71) 7.32 (3.70–14.49) 3.47 (1.13–10.62)
 > Median (20 years) 42 (30.00) 25 (8.93) 12.98 (5.72–29.48) 5.50 (1.32–22.91)
Cumulative use of Opiumc
 Never used 57 (40.71) 225 (80.36) Reference Reference
  ≤ Median (87.5 g-years)b 46 (32.86) 28 (10.00) 4.22 (1.44–12.30) 3.95 (1.29–12.12)
 > Median (87.5 g-years) 37 (26.43) 27 (9.64) 8.60 (1.77–41.63) 4.79 (0. 88–26.08)
Age at start of opium use
 Never used 57 (40.71) 225 (80.36) Reference Reference
 > Median (41 years) 22 (15.71) 27 (9.64) 5.69 (2.40–13.47) 4.71 (1.38–16.08)
 ≤ Median (41 years)b 61 (43.57) 28 (10.00) 11.90 (6.02–23.53) 8.64 (1.90–39.18)
Cigarette smoking
 Never 59 (42.14) 205 (73.21) Reference Reference
 Ever 81 (57.86) 75 (26.79) 5.89 (3.30–10.50) 1.43 (0.50–4.10)
Daily cigarette smoking
 Never used 59 (42.14) 205 (73.21) Reference Reference
 ≤ Median (33 cigarettes per day) b 23 (16.43) 40 (14.29) 3.19 (1.54–6.58) 1.10 (0.28–4.27)
  > Median (33 cigarettes per day) 58 (41.43) 35 (12.50) 8.29 (4.35–15.79) 1.36 (0.43–4.34)
Duration of cigarette smoking
 Never used 59 (42.14) 205 (73.21) Reference Reference
  ≤ Median (30 years)b 40 (28.57) 42 (15.00) 4.74 (2.49–9.02) 1.09 (0.32–3.72)
  > Median (30 years) 41 (29.29) 33 (11.79) 8.39 (3.90–18.06) 2.28 (0.59–8.77)
Cumulative use of cigarette smokingc
 Never used 59 (42.14) 205 (73.21) Reference Reference
  ≤ Median (49.5 pack-years)b 23 (16.43) 38 (13.57) 3.11 (1.52–6.40) 1.83 (0.49–6.73)
  > Median (49.5 pack-years) 58 (41.43) 37 (13.21) 9.04 (4.60–17.70) 1.76 (0.57–5.42)
Age at start of cigarette smoking
 Never use 59 (42.14) 205 (73.21) Reference Reference
  > Median (30 years) 62 (44.29) 61 (95.71) 5.45 (3.01–9.89) 4.71 (1.38–16.08)
  ≤ Median (30 years)b 19 (13.57) 14 (5.0) 8.48 (3.44–20.85) 8.64 (1.90–39.18)
Alcohol Use
 Never 135 (96.43) 277 (98.93) Reference Reference
 Ever 5 (3.57) 3 (1.07) 3.33 (0.79–20.85) 2.34 (0.23–23.86)
  1. aSpecific dietary factors such as the use of meat, fruit and vegetables, hydrogenated fats, olive oil, as well as other main exposures (cigarette smoking and alcohol) and education were controlled. bMedian of use in the control group was considered as the cut off point. cCumulative use was obtained by multiplying the amount of use (per day) and the duration of use (per year)