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Table 3 Univariate analysis of the baseline parameters associated with PFS and OS

From: Education level as a predictor of survival in patients with multiple myeloma

Variable PFS OS
HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P
Sex
 Male vs female 1.04 (0.83–1.30) 0.74 0.97 (0.73–1.29) 0.823
Age (per year of age) 1.03 (1.02–1.04) < 0.001 1.04 (1.02–1.05) < 0.001
Smoking
 Yes vs no 0.95 (0.74–1.23) 0.71 0.93 (0.68–1.29) 0.671
Marital status
 Married vs other 0.78 (0.44–1.34) 0.41 0.85 (0.40–1.81) 0.672
Residential area
 Rural vs urban 1.48 (1.14–1.93) 0.003 1.47 (1.06–2.05) 0.023
Distance to hospital
 Different province vs the same province 1.18 (1.01–1.37) 0.039 1.15 (0.94–1.41) 0.175
Education level
 High vs low education level 0.39 (0.30–0.52) < 0.001 0.25 (0.17–0.38) < 0.001
Occupational status
 Unemployed vs employed 1.67 (1.22–2.30) 0.002 2.53 (1.55–4.13) < 0.001
Average annual income
 ≥ $42,500 vs < $42,500 USD 0.51 (0.37–0.70) < 0.001 0.36 (0.23–0.55) < 0.001
Insurance status
 No insurance vs any insurance 1.54 (1.15–2.06) 0.004 2.16 (1.43–3.29) < 0.001
Comorbidity
 Yes vs no 1.72 (1.35–2.18) < 0.001 2.54 (1.81–3.56) < 0.001
Time to diagnosis
 > 1 vs ≤1 month 1.47 (1.13–1.91) 0.004 1.96 (1.37–2.81) < 0.001
ISS stage
 III vs I/II 1.23 (1.09–1.39) 0.001 1.38 (1.19–1.60) < 0.001
LDH level
 ≥ 240 vs < 240 U/L 1.87 (1.43–2.46) < 0.001 1.85 (1.32–2.60) < 0.001
Cytogenetics
 High risk vs standard risk 1.68 (1.26–2.25) < 0.001 1.98 (1.38–2.82) < 0.001
Receipt of transplant
 No vs yes 2.98 (2.34–3.80) < 0.001 2.53 (1.87–3.44) < 0.001
Regular treatment
 no vs yes 3.28 (2.59–4.16) < 0.001 3.51 (2.61–4.71) < 0.001
  1. PFS progression-free survival, OS overall survival, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, ISS international staging system, LDH lactate dehydrogenase