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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analyses of tumor necrosis and clinicopathologic variables in patients with primary small hepatocellular carcinomaa

From: Tumor necrosis as a poor prognostic predictor on postoperative survival of patients with solitary small hepatocellular carcinoma

Characteristics P value Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
Univariate analysis
 Gender (Male vs. Female) 0.632 0.825 (0.374–1.816)
 Age (≤ 48.0b vs. >  48.0) 0.957 1.014 (0.615–1.672)
 AFP (≤ 20 ng/ml vs. >  20 ng/ml) 0.432 1.230 (0.734–2.059)
 ALT (≤ 40 μ/l vs. > 40 μ/l) 0.253 1.337 (0.812–2.201)
 Tumor size (≤ 2.5c cm vs. > 2.5 cm) 0.001 2.431 (1.443–4.093)
 Differentiation (well-moderate vs. poor-undifferentiated) 0.512 1.215 (0.679–2.175)
 Vascular invasion (absent vs. present) < 0.001 3.033 (1.827–5.035)
 Envelope (absent vs. present) 0.758 0.920 (0.544–1.559)
 Liver cirrhosis (absent vs. present) 0.102 1.516 (0.921–2.495)
 Tumor necrosis (absent vs. present) < 0.001 2.821 (1.643–4.842)
Multivariate analysis
 Tumor size (≤ 2.5 cm vs. > 2.5 cm) 0.006 2.083 (1.229–3.529)
 Vascular invasion (absent vs. present) < 0.001 2.663 (1.598–4.437)
 Tumor necrosis (absent vs. present) 0.005 2.208 (1.272–3.833)
  1. aThe analyses were performed with the use of Cox proportional-hazards regression; bMedian age; cMedian size; AFP indicates alpha-fetoprotein; ALT indicates alanine aminotranferease