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Table 1 Correlation of tumor necrosis with patients’ clinicopathological features in primary small hepatocellular carcinomas

From: Tumor necrosis as a poor prognostic predictor on postoperative survival of patients with solitary small hepatocellular carcinoma

Characteristics Cases Necrosis (−) Necrosis (+) P valuea
Gender     0.555
 Male 295 155 (52.5%) 140 (47.5%)  
 Female 40 23 (57.5%) 17 (42.5%)  
Age (years)     0.694
  ≤ 48.0b 166 90 (54.2%) 76 (45.8%)  
  >  48.0 169 88 (52.1%) 81 (47.9%)  
AFP (ng/ml)     0.485
  ≤ 20 139 77 (55.4%) 62 (44.6%)  
  >  20 196 101 (51.5%) 95 (48.5%)  
ALT (μ/l)     0.504
  ≤ 40 192 99 (51.6%) 93 (48.4%)  
  >  40 143 79 (55.2%) 64 (44.8%)  
Tumor size (cm)     0.026
  ≤ 2.5c 188 110 (58.5%) 78 (41.5%)  
  >  2.5 147 68 (46.3%) 79 (53.7%)  
Differentiation     0.675
 Well 56 32 (57.1%) 24 (42.9%)  
 Moderate 208 111 (53.4%) 97 (46.6%)  
 Poor-undifferentiated 71 35 (49.3%) 36 (50.7%)  
Vascular invasion     0.003
 Absent 255 147 (57.6%) 108 (42.4%)  
 Present 80 31 (38.8%) 49 (61.3%)  
Envelope     0.872
 Absent 214 113 (52.8%) 101 (47.2%)  
 Present 121 65 (53.7%) 56 (46.3%)  
Liver cirrhosis     0. 166
 Absent 201 113 (56.2%) 88 (43.8%)  
 Present 134 65 (48.5%) 69 (51.5%)  
  1. aChi-square test; bMedian age; cMedian size; AFP indicates alpha-fetoprotein; ALT indicates alanine aminotranferease