Skip to main content

Table 1 Resources required per screened woman by intervention arm, with associated costs in 2019 (€ 1 = 10.5912 SEK)

From: Cost-effectiveness analysis of repeated self-sampling for HPV testing in primary cervical screening: a randomized study

   Pap smear (n = 18,393) HPV self-sampling (n = 17,997)
Unit Cost (€) Units Costs (€) Units Costs (€)
Primary screening
 Pap smear cytological analysis 25 6364 159,100   
 Midwife appointment for sampling 98 6364 623,672   
 First HPV self-sampling kit, return and HPV test (including postal fees) 27    7997 215,919
 2nd HPV self-sampling kit, return and HPV test (including postal fees) 27    501 13,527
Total cost of primary screening    782,772   229,446
 Screened women   6364   7997  
 Abnormal cytology in need of clinical follow-up   222    
 2nd HPV-positive in need of clinical follow-up     355  
 Incremental effect (screened women)    1633   
 Cost per screened woman    123   29
 ICER per extra screened woman    − 339   
Clinical follow-up
 Pap smear cytological analysis 25 238 5950 428 10,700
 HPV analysis* 38 173 6574 46 1748
 Midwife appointment for sampling 98 166 16,268 4 392
 Colposcopy appointment 470 114 53,580 384 180,480
 Biopsy histological analysis 147 114 16,758 367 53,949
Total cost of clinical follow-up    99,130   247,269
Total cost of primary screening + clinical follow-up    881,902   476,715
 CIN2+   68   175  
 Incremental effect (CIN2+)    107   
 Cost per woman with CIN2+    12,969   2724
 ICER per extra detected woman with CIN2+    − 3787   
Sensitivity analysis HPV vs. Pap smear (ICER per extra detected woman with CIN2+)
Efficacy parameters
  Participation rate + 25% Pap smear   7955 −5451   
  Participation rate + 25% HPV self-sampling    − 3124 9996  
  Participation rate − 25% Pap smear   4773 −111   
  Participation rate − 25% HPV self-sampling    − 4129 5998  
Screening cost variation
  HPV self-sampling + 25% 34   − 3092   
  HPV self-sampling −25% 20   − 4160   
  Pap smear cytological analysis + 25% 32   − 3990   
  Pap smear cytological analysis −25% 19   − 3262   
  Midwife appointment + 25% 122   − 5076   
  Midwife appointment −25% 73   − 2176   
  Midwife appointment −50% 49   − 727   
  1. *Total cost of HPV test including HPV kit and analysis performed at the HPV laboratory, Uppsala University and transfer of the results to the database at the Department of Cytology and Pathology, Uppsala University Hospital