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Table 3 Subgroup analysis of association between EBV infection and gastric cancer risk

From: Association between Epstein-Barr virus infection and gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristics Categories No. of Studies Pooled OR (95% CI) Heterogeneity test
I2%, p-value
Differences between subgroups; χ2 test
(p-value)
Overall 20 18.56 (15.68–21.97) 55.4%, P < 0.01
Sex Male 8 14.07 (10.46–18.93) 49.0%, P = 0.06 P = 0.06
Female 8 21.47 (15.55–29.63) 0%, P = 0.55
Study location America 5 15.69 (10.82–22.74) 57.4%, P = 0.05 P = 0.33
Asia 9 21.00 (16.77–26.30) 59.1%, P = 0.01
Europe 6 17.23 (13.19–22.51) 5.6%, P = 0.38
Development status Developed countries 10 17.31 (13.38–22.40) 58.7%, P < 0.01 P = 0.46
Developing countries 10 19.73 (15.56–25.03) 56.2%, P = 0.01
Lauren’s histological type Intestinal type 10 15.07 (9.55–23.78) 62.0%, P < 0.01 P = 0.27
Diffuse type 10 10.69 (7.14–16.00) 79.0%, P < 0.01
Tumor anatomical location Cardia 10 6.65 (5.18–8.52) 21.8%, P = 0.24 P = 0.46
Body 10 6.31 (2.38–16.69) 97.0%, P < 0.01
Antrum 11 15.55 (4.12–58.62) 98.2%, P < 0.01
Depth of invasion Early 3 5.87 (2.78–12.40) 45.8%, P = 0.16 P < 0.01†
Advanced 3 19.94 (13.31–29.85) 22.9%, P = 0.27
Tumor stage I + II 2 33.50 (10.85–103.46) 73.8%, P = 0.05 P = 0.52
III + IV 2 22.26 (13.05–37.96) 24.6%, P = 0.25
Lymph node invasion Absent 3 16.98 (9.02–31.95) 1.3%, P = 0.36 P = 0.58
Present 3 23.21 (9.44–57.03) 80.6%, P < 0.01
  1. † Statistically significant