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Table 2 Subgroup analysis of the prevalence of EBV infection in gastric cancer patients

From: Association between Epstein-Barr virus infection and gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristics Categories No. of Studies Pooled prevalence (%) (95% CI) Heterogeneity test
I2%, p-value
Differences between subgroups; χ2 test
(p-value)
Overall 71 8.77 (7.73–9.92) 83.2%, P < 0.01
Study design Cross-sectional 41 8.22 (6.90–9.77) 88.2%, P < 0.01 P = 0.15
Case-control 30 9.71 (8.32–11.30) 59.4%, P < 0.01
Publication date ≤2005 42 8.91 (7.65–10.35) 82.5%, P < 0.01 P = 0.77
> 2005 29 8.56 (6.81–10.71) 84.6%, P < 0.01
Sex Male 46 10.83 (9.43–12.40) 73.2%, P < 0.01 P < 0.0001†
Female 46 5.72 (4.27–7.64) 74.9%, P < 0.01
Study location Africa 4 11.93 (5.97–22.44) 76.8%, P < 0.01 P = 0.64
America 16 9.51 (7.45–12.07) 76.8%, P < 0.01
Asia 35 8.38 (7.15–9.80) 84.1%, P < 0.01
Europe 17 8.21 (5.82–11.46) 80.4%, P < 0.01
Development status Developed countries 34 8.42 (7.11–9.94) 82.1%, P < 0.01 P = 0.64
Developing countries 39 8.92 (7.40–10.73) 83.5%, P < 0.01
Sample type FFPE 69 8.49 (7.54–9.55) 79.9%, P < 0.01 P < 0.0001†
Biopsy 2 20.36 (16.89–24.32) 0%, P = 0.9
Lauren’s histological type Intestinal type 40 8.10 (6.64–9.83) 69.2%, P < 0.01 P = 0.31
Diffuse type 40 9.41 (7.54–11.69) 77.0%, P < 0.01
Tumor anatomical location Cardia 32 12.47 (10.39–14.89) 24.8%, P = 0.1 P = 0.0002†
Body 32 11.68 (9.96–13.65) 32.0%, P = 0.04
Antrum 35 6.29 (4.67–8.42) 76.8%, P < 0.01
Depth of invasion Early 7 13.00 (9.20–18.06) 0%, P = 0.71 P = 0.45
Advanced 7 10.80 (7.64–15.06) 58.1%, P = 0.03
Tumor stage I + II 14 7.39 (5.79–9.39) 29.5%, P = 0.14 P = 0.36
III + IV 14 8.80 (6.57–11.68) 64.4%, P < 0.01
Lymph node invasion Absent 14 8.75 (6.02–12.55) 57.9%, P < 0.01 P = 0.91
Present 14 9.00 (6.33–12.65) 77.4%, P < 0.01
  1. FFPE Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded
  2. †Statistically significant