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Table 4 The list of selected environmental factors which are significant for the 4th vs. 1st quartile based on univariate secondary assessment of spatial frailties from the AFT model in PA for PC Cases diagnosed at age 40+ in the PCR, 2004–2014

From: Spatial patterns in prostate Cancer-specific mortality in Pennsylvania using Pennsylvania Cancer registry data, 2004–2014

  Estimate (95% CI)
County Health Rankingsb
Poor physical health days/Physically Unhealthy Days (N) − 0.62 (− 1.23, − 0.01)
Low birth weight (%) − 0.70 (− 1.29, − 0.11)
Food Environment Index 0.61 (0.05, 1.15)
Income inequality 80th Percentile 0.51 (0.02, 1.01)
Number of Workers driving alone/long commute (N) 0.52 (0.04, 0.99)
Premature Age-Adjusted Mortality −0.60 (−1.17, − 0.02)
Diabetes prevalence/Diabetic (N) − 0.67 (− 1.23, − 0.09)
Median household income 0.56 (0.06, 1.05)
Land Domainc
Percent defoliate chemical applied/total acresa −1.66 (−3.06, − 0.26)
Herbicides (pounds)a 1.18 (0.24, 2.15)
Insecticides (pounds)a 0.95 (0.03, 1.89)
Air Domainc
1,1,2-trichloroethane (tons emitted)a −1.75 (−2.89, −0.65)
2,4-toluene diisocyanate (tons emitted)a −1.15 (− 1.98. -0.33)
2-nitropropane (tons emitted)a − 1.13 (− 1.90, − 0.42)
Acetonitrile (tons emitted)a − 0.94 (− 1.81, − 0.09)
Acetophenone (tons emitted)a − 0.81 (− 1.53, − 0.12)
Acrylic acid (tons emitted)a −1.64 (− 2.82, − 0.48)
Antimony compounds (tons emitted)a −1.08 (− 2.05, − 0.14)
Benzyl chloride (tons emitted)a −1.38 (− 2.22, − 0.58)
Bromoform (tons emitted)a −2.34 (− 3.56, − 1.16)
Chloroprene (tons emitted)a −1.11 (− 1.91, − 0.34)
Dibutylphthalate (tons emitted)a −0.96 (− 1.78, − 0.17)
Dimethyl phthalates (tons emitted)a −1.20 (− 2.11, − 0.32)
Dimethyl sulfate (tons emitted)a −1.53 (− 2.41, − 0.70)
Epichlorohydrin (tons emitted)a −1.32 (− 2.20, − 0.49)
Ethyl acrylate (tons emitted)a −1.68 (− 2.90, − 0.49)
Ethylidene dichloride (tons emitted)a −1.25 (− 2.37, − 0.17)
Hexachlorobenzene (tons emitted)a −0.92 (− 1.55, − 0.32)
Hexachlorobutadiene (tons emitted)a −0.84 (− 1.49, − 0.25)
Hydrazine (tons emitted)a −0.79 (− 1.46, − 0.15)
Isophorone (tons emitted)a −1.27 (− 2.34, − 0.23)
Methylhydrazine (tons emitted)a −1.14 (− 1.93, − 0.39)
Nitrobenzene (tons emitted)a −0.84 (− 1.48, − 0.24)
N,N-dimethylaniline (tons emitted)a −0.61 (− 1.23, − 0.02)
o-toluidine (tons emitted)a −1.18 (− 1.98, − 0.43)
Vinyl acetate (tons emitted)a −0.85 (− 1.72, − 0.08)
  1. a Risk factor was log-transformed;
  2. CI credible interval;
  3. bhttps://www.countyhealthrankings.org/explore-health-rankings/measures-data-sources/;
  4. chttps://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NHEERL/