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Table 2 Timing of associations between medications and ICI response

From: Inferring the role of the microbiome on survival in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: causal modeling, timing, and classes of concomitant medications

 Cancer TypeDrug TypeTiming Window (days)Sig PFSSig OSN Drug UsersN TotalPFS HROS HRUni vs Multi VariateControlled Covariates
This studyMelanomaABx+/− 28 Yes48185 1.66MultiCS, ECOG, BMI, G, A, CG
[14]MelanomaABx(−30)-0YesNo10740.320.52Multi (only for PFS)A, E, G, LT, IR, Serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), BRAF status
This studyNSCLCABx+/− 28 No64152 0.81MultiCS, ECOG, BMI, G, A, CG
[13]NSCLCABx+/− 28YesYes201090.290.35MultiA, G, S, E, His, Mut, LT, IR, CT
[22]NSCLCABx(−30)-0YesYes482391.32.5MultiA, His, S, PR, E, C, Hos
[13]NSCLCABx(−60)-0YesYes201090.290.35MultiA, G, His, S, E, LT, C, IR Mutation, ABx, PPIs
[22]NSCLCABx(− 60)-0NoYes682391.22MultiA, His, S, PR, E, C, Hos
[2]NSCLCABx(−84)-0NoYes37140 2.31MultiA, G, His, S, PR, E, MS
[2]RCCABx(−30)-0YesYes161212.22.1MultiA, TB, R
[22]RCCABx(−60)-0YesNo221212.31.9MultiA, TB, R
[2]RCCABx(−84)-0YesNo20672.16 MultiA, G, R, TB
[2]UCABx(−84)-0NoNo12421.97 MultiHemoglobin levels, KPS, Liver M
[49]SeveralAbx(−30)-0 Yes29167 7.4Uni 
[49]SeveralAbx0+ No68128 0.9Uni 
[49]SeveralAbx(−30)-- Yes29167 8.2MultiCancer, E, CG, TB, A, CS
This studyMelanomaCS+/− 28 Yes66185 1.57MultiABx, ECOG, BMI, G, A, CG
[48]NSCLCCS (Cancer-related)+/− 1NoYes666501.41.6MultiA, G, S, His, LT, IR, E, Mut, Brain M, PD-L1 TPS, %, Median TMB
[48]NSCLCCS (Cancer-unrelated)+/− 1NoNo276500.620.91MultiA, G, S, His, LT, IR, E, Mut, Brain M, PD-L1 TPS, %, Median TB
[21]NSCLCCS0 + 28YesYes351511.882.38MultiA, G, S, His, MS, E, LT, IR, Brain M Bone M, Liver M, PD-L1 expression, CS
This studyNSCLCCS+/− 28 Yes67152 1.85MultiABx, E, BMI, G, A, CG
[9]NSCLCCS(−30)-0YesYes906401.31.7MultiS, E, Brain M
[13]NSCLCPPIs+/− 28NoNo401091.11.47Uni 
[2]NSCLCPPIs(−84)-0NoNo35140  Uni 
[2]RCCPPIs(−84)-0NoNo2067  Uni 
[2]UCPPIs−84NoNo742    
  1. Abbreviations: A Age, G Gender, R IMDC Risk, TB Tumor Burden, His Histology, S Smoking History, PR Number of Prior Regimens, E ECOG Performance Status, C Clinical Trial, Hos Hospitalization, MS Number of Metastatic Sites, LT Line of Therapy, IR ICI Regimen, CS Corticosteroids, ABx Antibiotics, CG Cancer Stage, M Metastases, Mut Mutation