Skip to main content

Table 3 Reported trends in incidence of yCRC incidence overall and according to sex

From: Trends in the epidemiology of young-onset colorectal cancer: a worldwide systematic review

StudyDate RangeOverallWomenMenFindingb
North America
 Chow 1991 [1991]1976–1987CC AAPC White: − 2.0 (< 0.05)
CC AAPC Black: − 1.3
CC AAPC White: − 0.7
CC AAPC Black: + 1.7
not consistent
 Polednak, 1994 [15]1965–1991CRC % change ASR: − 19 (p = 0.153)CRC % change ASR: − 29 (p < 0.05)↓ CRC m
 Marrett 2002 [16]1969–1996CRC AAPC: − 1.39 (− 1.69, − 1.08)CRC AAPC: − 0.43 (− 0.77, − 0.08)↓ CRC w
↓ CRC f
 Cress, 2006 [17]1992–2001CRC APC: + 1.1aCRC APC: + 1.4
RC APC: + 3.6 (p < 0.05)
CRC APC: + 0.8
RC APC: + 2.5 (p < 0.05)
↑ RC w
↑ RC m
 Siegel 2009 [4]1992–2005CRC APC: + 1.6 (p < 0.05)CRC APC: + 1.5 (p < 0.05)↑ CRC w
↑ CRC m
 Meyer 2010 [18]1973–2005CC APC: − 0.2 (− 0.6, 0.3)
RC APC: + 2.6 (1.9, 3.3)
RC APC: + 2.5 (1.8, 3.8)RC APC: + 2.5 (1.6, 3.4)↑ RC
 Merrill, 2011 [19]2000–2007CRC % change RAIR White: 21.7
CRC % change RAIR Black: 11.4
% change CRC RAIR White: 2.0
CRC % change RAIR Black: 0.4
↑ CRC w
↑ CRC m
 Giddings, 2012 [21]1998–2007CRC APC Chinese: −1.8 (− 3.9, 0.3)
CRC APC Japanese: − 0.1 (− 3.6, 3.7)
CRC APC Filipino: − 0.1 (− 2.2, 2.1)
CRC APC Korean: + 0.5 (− 2.0, 3.1)
CRC APC South Asian: -
CRC APC Vietnamese: + 2.2 (− 0.8, 5.2)
CRC APC Chinese: − 1.6 (− 3.3, 0.1)
CRC APC Japanese: + 1.4 (− 2.5, 5.6)
CRC APC Filipino: + 0.6 (− 1.6, 2.9)
CRC APC Korean: + 3.4 (0.1, 6.7)
CRC APC South Asian: + 1.5 (− 2.9, 6.2)
CRC APC Vietnamese: + 1.8 (− 0.8, 4.4)
not consistent
 Nancy You 2012 [5]1998–2007CRC APC: + 2.1 (1.1, 3.1)
CC APC: + 2.7 (2.0, 3.3)
RC APC: + 3.9 (3.1, 4.7)
↑ CRC
↑ CC
↑ RC
 Austin 2014 [22]1998–2009CRC APC
N Hispanic White: + 1.69 (1.47, 1.91)
Black: + 0.44 (− 0.03, 0.92)
Asian: + 0.61 (− 0.41, 1.35)
Hispanic White: + 0.59 (− 0.15, 1.33)
CRC APC
N Hispanic White: + 1.79 (1.46, 2.11)
Blacks: + 0.47 (− 0.39, 1.34)
Asian: + 0.45 (− 0.57, 1.49)
Hispanic White: + 0.76 (0.03, 1.5)
CRC APC
N Hispanic White: + 1.61 (1.35, 1.87)
Blacks: + 0.40 (− 0.14, 0.93)
Asian: + 0.72 (− 0.53, 1.99)
Hispanic White: + 0.42 (− 0.63, 1.48)
not consistent
 Siegel 2014 [23]2001–2010CRC APC: + 1.1 (p < 0.05) RC APC: + 1.8 (p < 0.05)↑ CRC
↑ RC
 Singh, 2014 [23]1988–2009CRC BAPC 20-29y: + 3.8 (p < 0.011)
CRC BAPC 30-39y: + 4.5 (p < 0.001)
CRC BAPC 40-49y: + 2.6 (p < 0.001)
CRC BAPC 20-29y: + 2.7 (p < 0.011)
CRC BAPC 30-39y: + 3.5 (p < 0.001)
CRC BAPC 40-49y: + 2.7 (p < 0.001)
↑ CRC w
↑ CRC m
 Bailey 2015 [49]1975–2010CRC APC 20-34y: + 1.99 (1.48, 2.51)
CRC APC 35-49y: + 0.41 (0.14, 0.69)
RC APC 20-34y
localized: + 4.03 (p < 0.001)
regional: + 3.05 (p < 0.001)
distant: + 2.66 (p < 0.001)
RC APC 35-49y
localized: + 1.62 (p < 0.001)
regional: + 1.37 (p < 0.001)
distant: + 1.46 (p < 0.001)
↑ CRC
↑ RC
 Rahman 2015 [25]1992–2009CRC AAPC: + 1.68 (p < 0.05)↑ CRC
 Patel 2016 [26]1997 to 2010CRC APC 15-29y: + 6.7 (4.3, 9.3)
CRC APC 30-39y: + 2.4 (1.5, 3.3)
CRC APC 40-49y: + 0.8 (0.3, 1.4)
CRC APC 15-29y: + 7.9 (1.1, 15.1)
CRC APC 30-39y: + 2.3 (0.8, 3.7)
CRC APC 40-49y: + 0.6 (0.1, 1.2)
CRC APC 15-29y: + 7.0 (3.7, 10.4)
CRC APC 30-39y: + 2.5 (1.5, 3.4)
CRC APC 40-49y: + 1.0 (0.4, 1.5)
↑ CRC
 Koblinski 2017 [51]2000–2010CRC % change Hispanic
localized:↑77%; regional: ↑56%
distant: ↑57%
CRC % change White
localized:↑21%; regional: ↑18%
distant: ↑41%
↑ CRC
 Sheneman 2017 [27]2003–2013CRC EAPC: + 1.7CRC EAPC: + 0.6CRC EAPC: + 2.7 (p < 0.05)↑ CRC m
 Siegel 2017 [7]2004–2013CRC AAPC: + 1.6 (p < 0.05)
CRC IRR: + 1.22 (1.17, 1.28)
RC AAPC: + 2.0 (p < 0.05)
RC IRR: + 1.22 (1.13, 1.31)
↑ CRC
↑ RC
 Siegel 2017 [7]1974–2013CC APC 20-29y: + 2.4 (1.6, 3.3)
CC APC 30-39y: + 1.0 (0.5, 1.5)
CC APC 40-49y: + 1.3 (0.7, 1.8)
RC APC 20-29y: + 3.2 (2.4, 3.9)
RC APC 30-39y: + 3.2 (2.7, 3.7)
RC APC 40-49y: + 2.3 (1.8, 2.7)
↑ CC
↑ RC
 Wang 2017 [28]1995–2010CRC APC 20-39y: + 1.82 (p < 0.01)
CRC APC 40-49y: + 0.33 (p = 0.08)
no consistent
 Ansa, 2018 [29]2000–2014CRC APC < 40: + 2.7 (p < 0.001)
CRC APC 40-49y: + 1.7 (p < 0.001)
↑ CRC
 Crosbie, 2018 [30]1992–2014CRC APC: + 1.8 (p < 0.05)CRC APC: + 1.8 (p < 0.05)CRC APC: + 1.7 (p < 0.05)↑ CRC
 Ellis, 2018 [31]2010–2014CRC TAPC Chinese: + 0.1 (− 2.1, 2.4)
CRC TAPC Japanese: + 0.5 (− 3.1, 4.1)
CRC TAPC Filipino: − 0.6 (− 3.5, 2.4)
CRC TAPC Korean: + 0.8 (− 3.8, 5.5)
CRC TAPC South Asian: + 4.3 (− 2.0, 10.9)
CRC TAPC Vietnamese: − 0.5 (− 3.1. 2.2)
CRC TAPC SEast Asian: -
CRC TAPC White: + 1.9 (0.8, 2.9)
CRC TAPC Black: + 0.3 (− 0.7, 1.4)
CRC TAPC Hispanic: + 2.1 (1.2, 3.1)
CRC TAPC Chinese: + 0.4 (− 2.0, 2.9)
CRC TAPC Japanese: + 1.5 (− 2.0, 5.0)
CRC TAPC Filipino: + 1.1 (− 1.1, 3.3)
CRC TAPC Korean: + 0.7 (− 1.8, 3.3)
CRC TAPC South Asian: − 0.9 (− 5.7, 4.2)
CRC TAPC Vietnamese: + 1.1 (− 3.9, 6.2)
CRC TAPC SEast Asian: − 1.0 (− 3.8, 1.9)
CRC TAPC White: + 0.9 (0.4, 1.4)
CRC TAPC Black: − 0.9 (− 2.2, 0.4)
CRC TAPC Hispanic: + 1.6 (0.3, 2.9)
not consistent
 Garcia, 2018 [32]2001–2014CRC relative increase IR: 24%↑ CRC
 Jacobs, 2018 [33]1973–2014CC % change IR: 41.5 (37.4, 45.8)
RC % change IR: 9.8 (6.2, 13.6)
  ↑ CRC
↑ RC
Oceania
 Haggar 2012 [34]1982–2007CRC APC: + 1.4 (0.1, 2.7)CRC APC: − 0.4 (− 1.7, 1.0)↑CRC w
 Boyce 2016 [35]2001–2008CRC OR: 1.03 (0.99, 1.07)no change
 Gandhi 2017 [36]1975–2012RC IRR: 1.13 (1.2, 1.26)RC IRR: 1.18 (1.06, 1.32)↑ RC w
↑ RC m
 Troeung 2017 [37]1982–2007CRC APC: + 3.0 (0.7, 5.5)CRC APC: + 3.4 (1.1, 5.7)CRC APC: + 2.6 (− 0.9, 5.2)↑ CRC w
Europe
 Zaridze, 1990 [38]1971–1987CC APC <29y: − 0.1 (− 14.2, 14.3)
CC APC 30-39y: − 1.3 (− 7.4, 5.1)
CC APC 40-49y: + 8.2 (4.6, 11.9)
RC APC < 29y: − 13.7 (− 26.4, 0.2)
RC APC 30-39y: − 9.1 (− 18.3, 1.2)
RC APC 40-49y: + 4.3 (0.5, 8.3)
CC APC <29y: − 9.1 (− 17.2, − 0.3)
CC APC 30-39y: − 2.9 (− 9.7, 4.5)
CC APC 40-49y: + 3.2 (− 0.1, 6.6)
RC APC < 29y: − 16.5 (− 29.3, − 1.5)
RC APC 30-39y: − 11.1 (− 16.4, − 5.4)
RC APC 40-49y: + 3.7 (− 1.4, 9.1)
no consistent
 Larsen 2010 [39]1992–2006proximal CC EAPC: ≥ − 2
distal CC EAPC: − 1
RC EAPC: <+ 1
proximal CC EAPC: < 1
distal CC EAPC: ≥ − 2
RC EAPC: <+ 1
no change w
no change m
 Ullah, 2018 [40]1994–2012CRC APC 20-29y: + 9.17 (p < 0.03)
CRC APC 30-39y: + 4.6 (p = 0.1)
CRC APC 40-49y: + 0.83 (p = 0.45)
not consistent
Asia
 Nooyi, 2011 [41]1983–2002RC EAPC 35–39 y: -
RC EAPC 40-44y: + 1.7 (p = 0.35)
RC EAPC 45–49y: + 0.4 (p = 0.83)
RC EAPC 35-39y: + 3.1 (p = 0.12)
RC EAPC 40-44y: + 1.8 (p = 0.29)
RC EAPC 45–49y: + 1.4 (p = 0.41)
no change w
no change m
 Wu 2012 [42]1973–2005CRC APC: − 0.3 (− 0.9, 0.3)CRC APC: 0.1 (− 0.4, 0.4)no change w
no change m
 Zhou 2015 [43]2005–2011CRC APC: −3.07 (p < 0.01)CRC APC: −2.56 (p = 0.21)CRC APC: −3.45 (p = 0.06)↓ CRC
 Nakagawa 2017 [44]1987–2004CRC APC: −0.8 (−1.7, 0.1)
RC APC: − 1.9 (− 2.6, − 1.1)
↓ RC
 Sarakarn 2017 [45]1989–2012CRC AAPC: + 5.7CRC AAPC: + 5.7 (p < 0.05)CRC AAPC: + 3.2 (p < 0.05)↑ CRC w
↑ CRC m
 Zhang, 2018 [46]1983–2012 CC APC: − 1.56 (− 1.73, − 1.39)
RC APC: − 0.17 (− 0.40, 0.05)
CC APC: − 1.11 (− 1.32, 0.90)
RC APC: + 0.60 (0.37, 0.84)
not consistent
Africa
 Hamdi Cherif, 2014 [47]1986–2010CRC APC: − 2.1 (− 6.3, 2.3)CRC APC: − 0.8 (− 4.7, 3.3)no change w
no change m
  1. a- obtained from authors after contacting them; b-key finding(s) indicate consistent trends identified from each study
  2. Abbreviations: CRC colorectal cancer; RC rectal cancer; CC colon cancer; APC annual percent change; AAPC average annual percent change; ASR age-standardized incidence rates; EAPC estimated annual percent change; RAIR risk-adjusted incidence rate; BAPC biannual percent change; TAPC triannual percent change; IRR incidence rate ratio; OR odds ra