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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies according to continent/region

From: Trends in the epidemiology of young-onset colorectal cancer: a worldwide systematic review

StudyCountryPopulation /Data SourceCancer InformationyCRC age range (yr)N (yCRC cases)OutcomesQuality Score
SiteDefinitionStagePrimary/ SecondaryIncidence/Prevalence Trend 
North America (n = 26 studies)
 Chow, 1991 [14]USASEER-9colonICD-Onot reported< 55not reportedincidenceAAPC x sex x ethnicity18
 Polednak, 1994 [15]USAConnecticut Tumor RegistrycolorectalICD-Onot reported0 to 44not reportedincidence% change in ASR x sex18
 Marrett, 2002 [16]CanadaNational Cancer Incidence Reporting System, CCRcolorectalICD-9not reported20 to 44w: 2692
m: 2876
incidenceAAPC x sex18
 Cress, 2006 [17]USASEER-13colorectal, rectumICD-O-3in situ, invasive, localized, regional/distant0 to 49w: 6893
m: 7803
incidence1. APC x sex
2. APC x sex x site
 Siegel, 2009 [4]USASEER-13colorectalICD-O-3local, regional, distal20 to 49w: 9733
m: 10, 913
incidenceAPC x sex16
 Meyer, 2010 [18]USASEER-9colon,
not reportednot reported< 20 to 39w: 3662
m: 3999
incidence1. APC x site
2. APC x sex x site
 Merrill, 2011 [19]USASEER-9colorectalICD-O-2not reported30 to 49not reportedincidence% change in RAIR x sex x ethnicity16
 Ellison, 2012 [20]CanadaCCRcolon,
ICD-O-3not reported20 to 49not reportedprevalenceAPC x age16
 Giddings, 2012 [21]USACalifornia Cancer RegistrycolorectalICD-O-3localized, regional, distant< 50w: 1278
m: 1259
incidenceAPC x sex x ethnicity19
 Nancy You, 2012 [5]USANational Cancer Databasecolon,
ICD-O-3stage III, IV< 5064,068incidenceAPC x site18
 Austin, 2014 [22]USACDC NPCRproximal colon, distal colon, rectumICD-O-3local, regional, distal< 50not reportedincidence1. APC x ethnicity
2. APC x sex x ethnicity
 Siegel, 2014 [23]USASEER-13, CDC NPCRproximal colon, distal colon, rectumICD-O-3local, regional, distal< 50w: 6250
m: 7270
APC x site17
 Singh, 2014 [24]USACalifornia Cancer Registryproximal colon, distal colon, rectumICD-O-3local, regional, or distant20 to 4920,520incidenceBAPC x sex x age19
 Bailey, 2015 [6]USASEER-9colon,
not reportedlocalized, regional, distant20 to 4930,708incidence1. APC x age
2. APC x age x site
 Rahman, 2015 [25]USASEER-18, North American Association of Central Cancer Registriescolorectalnot reportedstage 0, I, II, II, IV< 5060,023incidence mortalityAAPC17
 Patel, 2016 [26]CanadaNational Cancer Incidence Reporting System, CCR, Quebec Cancer Registrycolon,
ICD-O-3not reported15 to 491969: 756
2010: 1475
incidence1. APC x age
2. APC x sex x age
 Koblinkski, 2017USSEER-18colorectalnot reportedlocal, regional, distal< 50not reportedincidencepercent change x ethnicity x stage16
 Sheneman, 2017 [27]USColorado Cancer RegistrycolorectalICD-O-3early, late< 503729incidence1. EAPC
2. EAPC x sex
 Siegel, 2017 [7]USSEER-9, CDC NPCRproximal colon, distal colon, rectumICD-O-3local, regional, distal0 to 49w: 6650
m: 7550
incidence mortality1. AAPC x site
2. IRR x site
 Siegel, 2017 [7]USSEER-9proximal colon, distal colon, rectumICD-O-3not reported20 to 49not reportedincidenceAPC x age x site19
 Wang, 2017 [28]USTexas Cancer RegistrycolorectalICD-O-3localized, regional, distant20 to 4913,028incidence mortalityAPC x age17
 Ansa, 2018 [29]USSEER-18proximal colon, distal colon, rectumICD-O-3localized, regional, distant, or unstaged0 to 4957,938incidenceAPC x age18
 Crosbie, 2018 [30]USSEER-9colorectalICD-O-3not reported20 to 49w: 4010
m: 4578
incidenceAPC x sex19
 Ellis, 2018 [31]USCalifornia Cancer Registrycolorectalnot reportedin situ, localized, regional, distant20 to 49w: 1304
m: 1276
incidenceTAPC x sex x ethnicity18
 Garcia, 2018 [32]USSEER-18, CDC NPCRcolorectalICD-O-3localized, regional, distant20 to 49not reportedincidencerelative change in IR18
 Jacobs, 2018 [33]USSEER-9colon,
ICD-O-3Stage 0–2, 3, 4< 55not reportedincidence% change of IR19
Oceania (n = 4 studies)
 Haggar, 2012 [34]AustraliaWestern Australia Data Linkage ServicecolorectalICD-O-3not reported15 to 39500incidence mortalityAPC x sex18
 Boyce, 2016 [35]AustraliaNew South Wales Central Cancer Registrycolon,
ICD-O-3 and ICD-10localised, regional, distant< 30 to 49w: 971
m: 1030
incidence mortalityaverage annual linear trend in R19
 Gandhi, 2017 [36]New ZealandNew Zealand Cancer Registryproximal colon, distal colon, rectumnot reportednot reported< 50not reportedincidencerate of change of IR19
 Troeung, 2017 [37]AustraliaWestern Australia Cancer RegistrycolorectalICD-9 and ICD-10tumour grade15 to 39w: 256
m: 261
incidence mortality1. APC overall
2. APC x sex
Europe (n = 3 studies)
 Zaridze, 1990 [38]Russianot well describedcolon,
not reportednot reported<29 to 49not reportedincidenceAPC x type x sex x age9
 Larsen, 2010 [39]NorwayCancer Registry of Norwaycolon,
ICD-7not reported35 to 54w: 1739
m: 1707
incidenceAPC x age18
 Ullah, 2018 [40]IrelandNational Cancer Registry of Irelandcolorectalnot reportednot reported20 to 492750incidenceAPC x age18
Asia (n = 6 studies)
 Nooyi, 2011 [41]IndiaIndian Population-Based Cancer RegistriesrectumICD-Onot reported35 to 49not reportedincidenceEAPC x sex x age16
 Wu, 2012 [42]ChinaShanghai Cancer RegistrycolorectalICD-9not reported15 to 49w: 312
m: 259
incidenceAPC x sex19
 Zhou, 2015 [43]ChinaGuangzhou Cancer Registrycolon, rectumICD-10not reported< 50not reportedincidence1. APC
2. APC x sex
 Nakagawa, 2017 [44]JapanJapanese Population-Based Cancer Registriescolon,
ICD-10not reported< 50not reportedincidence1. APC x overall
2. APC x site
 Sarakarn, 2017 [45]ThailandKhon Kaen Cancer RegistrycolorectalICD-Ostage I, II, III, and IV< 50w: 1566
m: 1798
incidence1. APC
2. APC x sex
 Zhang, 2018 [46]ChinaHong Kong Cancer Registrycolon,
not reportednot reported20 to 498829incidenceAPC x sex x type20
Africa (n = 1 study)
 Hamdi Cherif, 2014 [47]AlgeriaPopulation-Based Cancer Registry of SetifcolorectalICD-O-3not reported15 to 44not reportedincidenceAPC x sex19
  1. Abbreviations: APC annual percent change (in incidence or prevalence); AAPC average annual percent change; ASR age-standardized incidence rate; BAPC biannual annual percent change; EAPC estimated annual percent change; TAPC triannual percent change; IR incidence rate; w women; m men; yCRC young-onset colorectal cancer; CDC Centre for Disease Control; ICD-O International Classification of Diseases for Oncology; ICD International Classification of Diseases;
  2. SEER Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program Registry;
  3. CCR Canadian Cancer Registry;
  4. CDC NPCR Centre for Disease Control National Program for Cancer Registries