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Table 1 Clinico-pathological features of 431 patients with a preoperative histopathologic diagnosis of DCIS

From: Predictive factors for the presence of invasive components in patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ based on preoperative biopsy

 DCIS (N = 397)Invasive component (N = 34)p
Age (yrs)50.2 ± 10.650.3 ± 11.40.967
US tumor size (mm, mean ± SD)  0.663
  ≤ 2 cm251 (63.2%)19 (55.9%) 
  > 2 cm133 (33.5%)14 (41.2%) 
 Not seen13 (3.3%)1 (2.9%) 
US finding  0.567
 Non-mass42 (10.6%)2 (5.9%) 
 Mass355 (89.4%)32 (94.1%) 
Mammographic finding  0.286
 Asymmetry25 (6.3%)2 (5.9%) 
 Microcalcification292 (73.6%)21 (61.8%) 
 Architecture distorsion8 (2.0%)2 (5.9%) 
 No specific finding72 (18.1%)9 (26.5%) 
Biopsy methods  0.001
 Needle Biopsy250 (63.0%)32 (94.1%) 
 Excisional Biopsy147 (37.0%)2 (5.9%) 
Surgery type  0.009
 Breast conserving surgery204 (51.4%)9 (26.5%) 
 Total mastectomy193 (48.6%)25 (73.5%) 
Pathologic DCIS size  0.010
  ≤ 2 cm241 (60.7%)12 (35.3%) 
  > 2 cm148 (37.3%)20 (58.8%) 
 No residual DCIS8 (2.0%)2 (5.9%) 
Invasive tumor size (mm, mean ± SD) 7.0 ± 8.9<  0.001
pN  0.117
 0393 (99.0%)32 (94.1%) 
 14 (1.0%)2 (5.9%) 
Multifocality  1.000
 Absent313 (78.8%)27 (79.4%) 
 Present84 (21.2%)7 (20.6%) 
Nuclear grade  0.125
 Low/intermediate319 (80.4%)23 (67.6%) 
 High78 (19.6%)11 (32.4%) 
Estrogen receptor  0.177
 -88 (22.2%)12 (35.3%) 
 +302 (76.1%)22 (64.7%) 
 Unknown7 (1.8%)0 (0%) 
Progesterone receptor  0.130
 -123 (31.0%)16 (47.1%) 
 +267 (7.3%)18 (52.9%) 
 Unknown7 (1.8%)0 (0%) 
HER2  0.679
 -241 (61.2%)20 (58.8%) 
 Overexpression147 (37.0%)14 (41.2%) 
 Unknown7 (1.8%)0 (0%) 
Ki-67(%)8.8 ± 9.115.3 ± 25.50.271
Closest margin (mm)4.8 ± 5.25.1 ± 4.30.788
Follow up periods (months)46.0 ± 35.261.6 ± 46.50.064
Any recurrence  1.000
 Absent389 (98.0%)33 (97.1%) 
 Present8 (2.0%)1 (2.9%) 
Chemotherapy  <  0.001
 no381 (96.0%)18 (52.9%) 
 yes16 (4.0%)16 (47.1%) 
Hormone therapy  0.147
 no90 (22.7%)12 (35.3%) 
 yes307 (77.3%)22 (64.7%) 
  1. Data are expressed as means±standard deviations or n (%)
  2. Abbreviations: DCIS Ductal carcinoma in situ, US Ultrasonography, HER2 Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2