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Table 4 Hazard ratios of herpes zoster for lymphoid neoplasms according to the latters’ subtypes

From: Increased risk of lymphoid malignancy in patients with herpes zoster: a longitudinal follow-up study using a national cohort

CharacteristicsHazard ratio for lymphoid neoplasm
 Unadjusted†P-value*Adjusted†‡P-value*
Hodgkin’s disease (ICD-10 code = C81)
 Herpes zoster3.34 (1.21–9.23)0.0203.23 (1.17–8.93)0.024
 Reference1.00 1.00 
Follicular (nodular) non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ICD-10 code = C82)
 Herpes zoster0.99 (0.28–3.52)0.9900.96 (0.27–3.41)0.948
 Reference1.00 1.00 
Diffuse non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ICD-10 code = C83)
 Herpes zoster1.61 (1.06–2.45)0.0251.51 (0.99–2.29)0.055
 Reference1.00 1.00 
Peripheral and cutaneous T cell lymphomas (ICD-10 code = C84)
 Herpes zoster1.49 (0.58–3.82)0.4021.42 (0.55–3.63)0.467
 Reference1.00 1.00 
Other and unspecified types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ICD-10 code = C85)
 Herpes zoster1.38 (0.93–2.06)0.1081.30 (0.88–1.94)0.192
 Reference1.00 1.00 
Malignant immunoproliferative diseases (ICD-10 code = C88)
 Herpes zoster1.66 (0.58–4.70)0.3431.51 (0.53–4.31)0.441
 Reference1.00 1.00 
Multiple myeloma and malignant plasma cell neoplasm (ICD-10 code = C90)
 Herpes zoster2.39 (1.47–3.89)< 0.0012.17 (1.33–3.54)0.002
 Reference1.00 1.00 
Lymphoid leukemia (ICD-10 code = C91)
 Herpes zoster1.02 (0.34–3.05)0.9751.01 (0.34–3.02)0.988
 Reference1.00 1.00 
  1. * Cox proportional hazards regression model; a P-value < 0.05 indicates significance
  2. † Stratified model for age, sex, income, and region of residence
  3. ‡ Adjusted model for the CCI score
  4. CCI Charlson comorbidity index, CI confidence interval, ICD-10 International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, tenth edition