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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of training and validation cohorts

From: Preoperative risk stratification for early recurrence of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma after deceased donor liver transplantation: a five-eight model development and validation

VariableTraining cohort (n = 486)Validation cohort(n = 262)P-value
Age (years)a51.6 ± 8.651.5 ± 8.70.890
Gender (Male/Female) b439 (90.3)/47 (9.7)231 (88.1)/31 (11.8)0.356
Diabetes (Yes/No) b62 (12.8)/424 (87.2)40 (15.3)/222 (84.7)0.340
Hypertension (Yes/No) b48 (9.9)/438 (90.1)33 (12.6)/229 (87.4)0.254
BMIa24.4 ± 12.923.3 ± 3.80.162
Cause (HBV/Non-HBV) b462 (95.1)/24 (4.9)256 (97.7)/6 (2.3)0.078
Cirrhosis (Yes/No) b411 (84.6)/75 (15.4)217 (82.8)/45 (17.2)0.535
Pre-LT AFP (ng/mL) b
  ≤ 10164 (33.7)94 (35.9)0.621
 10–200167 (34.4)95 (36.3)
 200–100082 (16.9)35 (13.4)
  > 100073 (15.0)38 (14.5)
Total tumor diameter (cm)b
  ≤ 5283 (58.2)148 (56.5)0.880
 5.1–8104 (21.4)57 (21.8)
  > 899 (20.4)57 (21.8)
Largest tumor diameter (cm)b
  ≤ 4309 (63.6)162 (61.8)0.296
 4–683 (17.1)56 (21.4)
 6.1–842 (8.6)15 (5.7)
  > 852 (10.7)29 (11.1)
Tumor number (single/multiple) b296 (60.9)/190 (39.1)151 (57.6)/111 (42.3)0.384
MELDc12 [8–21], (6–51)11 [9–19], (6–44)0.503
Child scorec7 [5–9], (5–14)7 [5–9], (5–14)0.473
Neoadjuvant therapyb
 TACE (yes/no)195 (40.1)/291 (59.9)113 (43.1)/149 (56.9)0.425
 RFA (yes/no)85 (17.5)/401 (82.5)49 (18.7)/213 (81.3)0.680
 Hepatectomy (yes/no)83 (17.1)/403 (82.9)41 (15.7)/221 (84.4)0.616
 Donor type b DBD/DCD/DBCD142 (29.2)/174 (35.8)/170 (35.0)70 (26.7)/103 (39.3)/89 (34.0)0.609
Donor death cause b
 Trauma233 (47.9)138 (52.7)0.404
 CVA190 (39.0)94 (35.9)
 Tumor29 (6.0)10 (3.8)
 Anoxia17 (3.5)13 (4.9)
 Others17 (3.5)7 (2.7)
Differentiation b
 well72 (14.8)42 (16.0)0.884
 moderate338 (69.6)178 (67.9)
 poor76 (15.6)42 (16.0)
Vascular invasion (yes/no) b113 (23.3)/373 (76.8)74 (28.2)/188 (71.8)0.132
Milan (in/out) b259 (53.3)/227 (46.7)125 (47.7)/137 (52.3)0.145
Hangzhou (in/out) b390 (80.3)/96 (19.8)197 (75.2)/65 (24.8)0.108
AFP model (in/out) b301 (61.9)/185 (38.1)167 (63.7)/95 (36.3)0.626
Post-LT mortality (Died/alive) b55 (11.3)/431 (88.7)31 (11.8)/231 (88.2)0.833
Post-LT recurrence (yes/no) b62 (12.8)/424 (87.2)44 (16.8)/218 (83.2)0.131
Time to recurrence (months)c11.3 [5.9–21.2], (0.2–47.0)12.0 [6.2–20.5], (1.1–44.8)0.863
Follow-up (days)c388 [205–673], (92–1428)416.5 [205–672], (92–1363)0.802
  1. Note: BMI Body mass index, HBV Hepatitis B virus infection, AFP Alpha-fetoprotein, MELD Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, LT Liver transplantation, TACE Transarterial chemoembolization, RFA Radiofrequency ablation, DBD Donation after brain death, DCD Donation after circulatory death, DBCD Donation after brain death followed by circulatory death, CVA Cerebrovascular accident, aMean ± SD, b number (percentage), c (median, [IQR, interquartile range]),(range)