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Table 4 Hazard ratios for lung cancer mortality in current smokers, by smoking exposure and education

From: Smoking related lung cancer mortality by education and sex in Norway

Mena
HRs 95% CI
 Education in years 
Smoking statusCases< 10 years
HRa 95% CI
Cases10–12 years
HRa 95% CI
Cases≥13 years
HRa 95% CI
Heterogeneity testb
P-values
Never smokersc181.00 (ref)541.00 (ref)191.00 (ref) 
Current smokers130328.96 (18.17–46.14)121616.01 (12.19–21.05)25422.50 (14.09–35.92)0.45
Duration of smoking (years) 
 1–1912018.27 (11.08–30.12)1309.13 (6.61–12.61)279.95 (5.49–18.03)0.13
 20–2971727.93 (17.43–44.74)75815.61 (11.80–20.66)15123.56 (14.51–38.25)0.62
  > 3046532.72 (20.35–52.62)31819.92 (14.65–27.09)7535.32 (19.59–63.69)0.84
 P for trendd < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 
Cigarettes smoked per day 
 1–1040020.71 (12.91–33.23)2628.98 (7.00–12.05)5312.26 (7.25–20.74)0.15
 11–2068434.57 (21.62–55.28)71019.00 (14.38–25.10)14227.96 (17.27–45.29)0.54
  > 2116554.57 (33.46–89.00)21133.76 (24.96–45.65)4950.24 (29.37–85.93)0.82
 P for trendd < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 
Pack-years 
 1–914115.84 (9.68–25.92)1016.49 (4.65–9.05)197.34 (3.88–13.91)0.06
 10–1949725.45 (15.88–40.78)44313.55 (10.20–18.00)8721.18 (12.85–34.89)0.60
  ≥ 2061140.43 (25.28–64.65)63223.84 (18.04–31.54)13837.02 (22.78–60.17)0.80
 P for trendd < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 
Womena
HRs 95% CI
Smoking statusCasesHRa 95% CICasesHRa 95% CICasesHRa 95% CI 
Never smokers701.00 (ref)811.00 (ref)371.00 (ref) 
Current smokers98015.85 (12.32–20.38)88714.22 (11.28–17.92)1169.41 (6.49–13.68)< 0.01
Duration of smoking (years) 
 1–191558.37 (6.21–11.29)1587.62 (5.78–10.06)203.83 (2.20–6.65)0.01
 20–2962416.11 (12.32–21.08)60316.19 (12.70–20.63)7311.01 (7.35–16.48)0.12
  > 3019423.05 (17.16–30.97)12021.85 (15.79–30.25)2227.18 (13.30–55.52)0.68
 P for trendd < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 
Cigarettes smoked per day 
 1–1045812.81 (9.87–16.62)3269.43 (7.37–12.07)365.15 (3.26–8.20)< 0.01
 11–2046522.88 (17.50–29.92)50021.35 (16.75–27.22)7814.47 (9.66–21.69)0.06
  > 215441.62 (28.75–60.25)5739.87 (28.22–56.34)819.70 (9.04–42.97)0.09
 P for trendd < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 
Pack-years 
 1–91978.31 (6.27–11.02)1486.08 (4.61–8.01)183.31 (1.88–5.84)< 0.01
 10–1948118.27 (14.05–23.77)45716.95 (13.31–21.60)5712.00 (7.89–18.25)0.10
  ≥ 2029429.66 (22.60–38.93)27427.92 (21.66–35.98)3918.49 (11.68–29.26)0.08
 P for trendd < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 
  1. a Multivariable Hazard ratios (95% CI) adjusted for body mass index and physical activity, both at enrollment
  2. bHeterogeneity test for those with < 10 years of education compared with ≥13 years education
  3. cNever smokers
  4. dTrend test without never smokers