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Table 1 Summary of Studies Included in Systematic Review

From: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor with intracranial metastasis: case presentation and systematic review of literature

 CaseAgeSexPrimaryCNS siteSize of CNS lesionOther MetsInterval between diagnosis and CNS metastasisTreatment of CNS tumorMutation StatusOutcome (from time of CNS diagnosis)
1Akiyama 2004 [8]60MSmall bowelLeft cavernous sinusNRL5-S1 vertebra7 yearsRadiation (54 Gy), not further describedNRDeath at 8 months
2Badri 2018 [15]66MSmall BowelRight cerebellar hemisphere4 cmNRCNS lesion found firstTotal resection of cerebellar tumor with adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy (no further details given)NRRemission at 12 months
3Brooks 2002 [4]75MMesenteryBoth hemispheres, (dural based)InfiltrativeLiver14 monthsImatinib 400 mg twice dailyNRRemission at 4 months
4Drazin 2012 [16]57MStomachLeft cerebellar, left frontal3 cm for cerebellar lesion, size of frontal lesion not providedNR13 monthsTotal resection for cerebellar lesions, SRS (18 Gy) to frontal lesionNRRemission at 15 months
5Gerin 2007 [7]45MSmall bowelPontomedullary junction, cerebellum, leptomeninges2 cm for primary lesion, others very smallNR5 yearsImatinib 800 mg dailyNRDeath at “a few weeks”
6Hamada 2010 [17]54FEsophagusLeft frontal lobe5 cmLiver6 yearsNeoadjuvant imatinib 400 mg daily, then total resection, SRS (dose not reported)KIT (exon 11)Remission at 6 months
7Hughes 2004 [9]47MJejunumLeft parasagittal (dural based)NRLiver25 MonthsTotal resection, Imatinib 800 mg dailyKIT (exon 9)Death at 35 months
8Inage 2002 [10]70MStomachLeft occipital, (dural based)5.5 cmLung10 yearsTotal resection and radiation, not further describedNRDeath at 8 months
9Jagannathan 2012 [11]15MStomachRight Frontoparietal, (dural based)4.2 cm × 3.3 cm × 3.1 cmLiver12 yearsMany TK inhibitors prior to discovery of CNS lesion, Total resectionNo mutation in KIT or PDGFR alphaRemission at 6 months
10Janku 2011 [18]56FStomachMany small lesionsNRLung, liver, pelvis3 weeksImatinib 400 mg daily, then 600 mg dailyNRNR
11Kajikawa 2005 [19]76MJejunum and DuodenumRight parietal, Right cerebellar hemisphere2 cmNR4 monthsImatinib 400 mg daily, radiation (WBRT 40 Gy)No mutation in KITDeath at 4 months
12Kaku 2006 [12]68FPerisacralRight parietal lobe, (dural based)3 cmNR2 yearsTotal resection, imatinib 800 mg dailyNRRemission
13Naoe 2011 [20]77MJejunumRight cerebral peduncle, left occipital lobe2.4 cm, 2.2 cmNRCNS lesion found firstTotal resection, WBRT (39 Gy), imatinib 400 mg dailyNo KIT mutation or PDGFR alphaDeath at 4 months
14O’Halloran 2017 [13]61MNRPituitary1.5 cm × 3.5 cm × 2 cmNRNRTotal resection, SRS and imatinib not further describedNRNR
15Puri 2006 [21]42MMesenteryRight Parietal lobe3.5 cmNRCNS lesion found firstTotal resection, WBRT (60 Gy), imatinib 600 mg daily, multiple cytotoxic chemotherapy regimensNRDeath at 10 months
16Sato 2014 [22]80MSmall bowelCerebellar vermis, Right frontal lobe4 cmCardiac apex, subclavian vesselsCNS lesion found firstTotal resection, radiotherapy (22 Gy) not further describedNRDeath at 4 months
17Takeuchi 2014 [5]74MJejunumRight prefrontal gyrus1.4 cm ×1.5 cmLiver6 yearsSunitinib 50 mg daily, SRS not further describedNRRemission at 9 months
18Wong 2011 [23]26MDuodenumLeft frontotemporal6.1 cm ×4.1 cmLiver6 yearsTotal resection, radiation not further describedNRRemission at 4 months
19Present case57FEsophagus and stomachLeft temporal, (dural based)2.9 cm × 3.1 cm × 3.4 cm.Liver6 monthsTotal resection, imatinib 400 mg dailyNRFollow-up in progress
  1. CNS, Central Nervous System; Mets, Metastases; M, Male; F, Female; NR, Not Reported; TK, Tyrosine Kinase; PDGFR, Platelet-derived growth factor receptor; SRS, Stereotactic radiosurgery; WBRT, Whole Brain Radiation Therapy