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Table 1 Baseline characteristics (N = 234)

From: The effect of antibiotics on the clinical outcomes of patients with solid cancers undergoing immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment: a retrospective study

 Total (%)No Antibiotics (%)Antibiotics (%)p value
Age
 < 65110 (47)56 (44.4)54 (50)0.396
 ≥ 65124 (53)70 (55.6)54 (50) 
Sex
 Male168 (71.8)91 (72.2)77 (71.8)0.875
 Female66 (28.2)35 (27.8)31 (28.2) 
ECOG score
 0–1200 (87.7)112 (92.6)88 (82.2)0.018
 2–328 (12.3)9 (7.4)19 (17.8) 
 unknown651 
Diagnosis
 NSCLC131 (56)71 (56.3)48 (55.6)0.903
 Othersa103 (44)55 (43.7)60 (44.4) 
Stage 
 III9 (3.8)6 (4.8)3 (2.8)0.511
 IV225 (96.2)120 (95.2)105 (97.2) 
Number of metastatic organ
 0 or 1151 (64.5)78 (61.9)73 (67.6)0.365
 ≥ 283 (35.5)48 (38.1)35 (32.4) 
Number of treatment line
 1st72 (30.8)45 (35.7)27 (25)0.198
 2nd96 (41)49 (38.9)47 (43.5) 
 ≥ 3rd66 (28.2)32 (25.4)34 (31.5) 
ICI
 Nivolumab135 (57.7)79 (62.7)56 (51.9)0.242
 Pembrolizumab62 (26.5)29 (23)33 (30.6) 
 Othersb37 (15.8)18 (14.3)19 (17.6) 
Treatment combination
 ICI alone189 (80.8)97 (77)92 (85.2)0.063
 ICI with ICI20 (8.5)10 (7.9)10 (9.3) 
 ICI with chemotherapy25 (10.7)19 (15.1)6 (5.6) 
Clinical trial
 Yes108 (46.2)72 (57.1)36 (33.3)< 0.001
 No126 (53.8)54 (42.9)72 (66.7) 
Antibiotics type
 No Antibiotics126 (53.8)126  
 Antibiotics108 (46.2)Cephalosporins38 (35.2) 
Fluoroquinolones26 (24.1) 
Beta-lactam/Betalactamase inhibitors18 (16.6) 
Othersc26 (24.1) 
Administration Route
 Oral67 67 (62) 
 Intravenous41 41 (38) 
  1. aMelanoma, N = 27; Bladder, N = 8; Renal cell carcinoma, N = 9, Head and Neck cancer, N = 16; Stomach cancer, N = 21; Hepato cellular carcinoma, N = 7; Esophageal cancer, N = 5; Small cell lung cancer, N = 3; Anal cancer, Cervical cancer, Colorectal cancer, Jejunal cancer, MUO, Ovarian cancer, Sarcoma, N = 1, resepcetively
  2. bAvelumab, N = 9; Durvalumab, N = 5; Atezoliaumab, N = 4; Ipilimumab, N = 15
  3. cCarbapenem, Glycopeptides, Macrolides and etc