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Table 3 GRADE assessment of quality of the body of evidence, and summary of findings

From: First-degree family history of breast cancer is associated with prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Association studied No. of studies Design Risk of bias Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Factors that can increase quality of evidence Pooled effect estimate Quality
Family history of BCa in first degree relatives and risk of PCa 13 Observational study Not serious Not serious Not serious Not serious All plausible confounding would reduce a demonstrated effect 1.14(1.10,1.18) MODERATE
Family history of BCa in mothers and risk of PCa 11 Observational study Not serious Not serious Not serious Not serious All plausible confounding would reduce a demonstrated effect 1.19(1.10,1.28) MODERATE
Family history of BCa in sisters and risk of PCa 10 Observational study Not serious Not serious Not serious Not serious All plausible confounding would reduce a demonstrated effect 1.16(1.06,1.27) MODERATE
Family history of BCa in daughters and risk of PCa 4 Observational study Not serious Not serious Not serious Not serious All plausible confounding would reduce a demonstrated effect 1.74(0.74,1.42) MODERATE
Family history of BCa in first degree relatives and risk of lethal PCa 2 Observational study Not serious Not serious Not serious Not serious None 1.18(1.04,1.34) LOW
Family history of BCa in mothers and risk of lethal PCa 2 Observational study Not serious Not serious Not serious Not serious None 1.35(1.14,1.61) LOW
Family history of BCa in sisters and risk of lethal PCa 2 Observational study Not serious Not serious Not serious Not serious None 1.02(0.84,1.23) LOW
  1. BCa: breast cancer; PCa: prostate cancer