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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

From: First-degree family history of breast cancer is associated with prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Year Country Study disgn Follow up duration Sample size Exposure Measure of effect RR (prostae cancer risk) (95% CI) Adjustment factors
Tulinius 1992 Iceland Cohort 1955–1988 29,725 Mother with BCa RR 1.40(0.51,3.05)
Sister with BCa 1.29(0.9,1.79)  
Daughter with BCa 1.45(1.02,2.00)  
Goldgar 1994 USA Cohort 1952–1992 656,017 First degree relatives with BCa RR 1.23(1.1,1.3)
Hayes 1995 USA Case-control Case: 981 Control: 1315 First degree relatives with BCa OR 1.3(0.9,1.9) Socio-economic status, based upon usual occupation,education, income, and marital status
Mother with BCa 1.0(0.6,1.7)
Sister with BCa 1.8(1.1,3.0)
Isaacs 1995 USA Case-control Case: 690 Control: 683 Mother with BCa OR 2.05(1.01,4.14) Age
Sister with BCa OR 1.53(0.78,3.00)
McCAHY 1996 UK Case-control Case:209 Control:322 First degree relatives with BCa OR 1.69(0.9,3.15)
Glover 1998 Jamaica Case-control Case: 263 Control: 263 First degree relatives with BCa OR 0.89(0.46,1.71)
Rodriguez 1998 USA Cohort 1982–1994 480,802 First degree relatives with BCa RR 1.16(1.01,1.33) Age, race, years of education, number of sisters and number of sisters older than 50 years of age, Jewish religion, BMI, physical activity, vegetable and fat intake, smoking status, and previous vasectomy
Mother with BCa 1.34(1.11,1.62)
Sister with BCa 0.97(0.78,1.20)
History of BCa diagnosis at age<50 1.23(0.94,1.62)
History of BCa diagnosis at age>50 1.16(0.98,1.37)
Kalish 2000 USA Cohort 1987–1997 1156 Mother with BCa RR 1.18(0.51,2.43)
Bai 2005 China Case-control Case:238 Control:471 First degree relatives with BCa OR 2.04 (0.75, 5.51) Age, vasectomy history
Mother with BCa 2.01 (0.28, 14.38)
Sister with BCa 4.03 (0.73, 22.14)
Daughter with BCa 1.01 (0.18, 5.54)
Negri 2005 Italy Case-control Case:1294 Control:2820 First degree relatives with BCa OR 1.20(0.8,1.8) Age, study centre, period of interview, education, occupational physical activity at 30–39 years of age and no of siblings (or sisters or brothers when appropriate)
Beebe-Dimmer 2006 USA Case-control Case:121 Control:179 Mother with BCa OR 0.52 (0.10,2.69) Age
Sister with BCa 3.80 (1.57–9.22)
Daughter with BCa 1.01 (0.19–5.28)
Suzuki 2007 Japan Case-control Case: 257 Control: 28,125 First degree relatives with BCa OR 3.6 (1.1–11.7) Smoking history, drinking, BMI, exercise habit, and referral pattern to the hospital
Chen 2008 USA Cohort 1986–2004 51,529 First degree relatives with BCa RR 1.30(1.13,1.49) Ethnicity, BMI, total calories, vigorous activity, cigarette smoking, and consumption of tomato sauce, calcium, alpha linolenic fatty acid, fish, and red meat
Mother with BCa 1.24(1.06,1.45)
Sister with BCa 1.19(0.98,1.45)
Mori 2011 Japan Case-control Case:142 Control:468 Mother or sister with BCa OR 2.70(1.12,6.49)
Thomas II 2012 USA Cross section 8122 Frist degree relatives with BCa OR 1.04(0.84,1.29) Age, race, PSA, BMI, TRUS volume, geographic region, DRE findings and treatment arm
Mother with BCa 1.07(0.8,1.42)
Sister with BCa 1.30(0.95,1.78)
Frank 2017 Sweden Cohort 1958–2012 15,700,000 Frist degree relatives with BCa RR 1.12(1.08,1.16) Sex, age group, calendar period, residential area, and socioeconomic status
Barber 2018 USA Cohort 1996–2012 37,002 Frist degree relatives with BCa HR 1.21(1.1,1.34) Age, race, BMI, smoking status, PSA screening, PSA testing intensity, alcohol intake, vigorous physical activity, total energy intake, consumption of tomato sauce, and red meat
Mother with BCa 1.14(1.01,1.27)
Sister with BCa 1.20(1.04,1.39)
Lamy 2018 France Case-control Case:819 Control:879 First degree relatives with BCa OR 1.13(0.84,1.52) Age, ethnic origin, number of first-degree female relatives and famili history of prostate cancer in first-degree relatives
Mother with BCa 1.04(0.71,1.52)
Sister with BCa 1.10(0.72,1.68)
Daughter with BCa 15.26(1.95,120)
History of BCa diagnosis at age<50 1.79(1.09,2.94)
History of BCa diagnosis at age>50 0.88(0.61,1.27)
  1. BCa: breast cancer; PCa: prostate cancer; RR: Relative risk; OR: odds ratio; HR: hazard ratio