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Table 3 Demographics and characteristics of gingival metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma cases reported between 1964 and 2018

From: Gingival metastasis from primary hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report and literature review of 30 cases

Background data Total cases (n = 30)
Age, years, median (range) 60 (43–87)
Male, gender, n (%) 26 (86.7)
Gingival Lesion as first sign, n (%) 12 (40.0)
Metastatis sites, n (%)
 Gingiva 30 (100.0)
 Lungs 15 (50.0)
 Lymph nodes 5 (16.7)
 Brain 4 (13.3)
 Adrenals 3 (10.0)
 Skin 2 (6.7)
 Vertebrae 2 (6.7)
 Kidney 1 (3.3)
 Penis 1 (3.3)
 Small bowel 1 (3.3)
Major Gingival Manifestation, n (%)
 Bleeding 17 (56.7)
 Rapid enlarging 7 (23.3)
 Ulceration 4 (13.3)
 Swelling 2 (6.7)
Pre-existing Hepathology, n (%)
 Post hepatitis B cirrhosis 7 (23.3)
 Post hepatitis C cirrhosis 5 (16.7)
 Alcoholic cirrhosis 3 (10.0)
 Transfusion hepatitis cirrhosis 1 (3.3)
 None 5 (16.7)
 NDa 9 (30.0)
Differention Gradeb, n (%)
 Moderate 19 (63.3)
 Poor 5 (16.7)
 Undifferentiation 3 (10.0)
 High 2 (6.7)
 NDa 1 (3.3)
Gingival lesion location, n (%)
 Upper 19 (63.3)
 Lower 11 (36.7)
 Left 11 (36.7)
 Central 6 (20.0)
 Right 11 (36.7)
 NDa 2 (6.7)
  1. aND, not described. bDifferention Grade, evaluated according to World Health Organization Classification of Tumours by International Agency for Research on Cancer