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Fig. 5 | BMC Cancer

Fig. 5

From: HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis: the role of signalling pathways and innovative ex vivo research models

Fig. 5

Animal models for studying HBV infection. Primates are the best models for studying HBV infection, but the associated high cost and regulations with animal ethics present significant limitations in the use of primates for future research. Alternative models using treeshrew, woodchuck, duck and mouse are useful, but these models are limited in progressing studies on host-pathogen interactions, immune response and viral clearance in humans. New potential models using transgenic macaques or pigs expressing human NTCP may help bridge this gap

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