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Fig. 3 | BMC Cancer

Fig. 3

From: Valproic acid-induced amphiregulin secretion confers resistance to temozolomide treatment in human glioma cells

Fig. 3

AR may confer resistance to TMZ in U87MG cells through EGFR activation. a The protein levels of AR in U87MG/shControl, U87MG/shAR#1, and U87MG/shAR#2 cells were examined using Western blot. b Cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of TMZ for 48 h, and subsequently cytotoxicity was evaluated by an XTT-based assay. The percentage of cell viability is shown relative to untreated controls. *P < 0.05 compared with shControl group. c The cell lysates were prepared, and equal amounts of total cell lysates were subjected to Western blot with the indicated antibodies (cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3). d Cells were pre-treated with rAR (50 ng/ml) for 8 h, and then further co-treated with TMZ (1500 μM) for 48 h. Cell viability was measured by XTT assay. e The effect of AR on the activation of EGFR family receptors was analyzed by a human EGFR phosphorylation antibody array. f Cells were pre-treated with AR antibodies (1 μg) for 2 h followed by TMZ (500 μM) treatment for another 48 h, and subsequently cytotoxicity was evaluated by an XTT-based assay. The percentage of cell viability is shown relative to untreated controls. *P < 0.05 compared with untreated control. #P < 0.05 compared with TMZ-treated group. Data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments performed in triplicate

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