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Table 1 Definitions of complications

From: Robot-assisted esophagectomy (RAE) versus conventional minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) for resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: protocol for a multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial (RAMIE trial, robot-assisted minimally invasive Esophagectomy)

Pulmonary
 Pneumonia: Radiographic confirmation with positive respiratory tract culture.
 Pleural effusion: Pleural effusion requiring additional drainage procedure.
 Pneumothorax: Radiographic confirmation requiring chest tube reinsertion.
 Respiratory failure: Reintubation or tracheostomy for weaning failure.
 Atelectasis: Atelectasis mucous plugging requiring bronchoscopy.
Cardiovascular
 Cardiac arrest requiring CPR
 Atrial arrhythmia: Electrocardiographic (ECG) confirmation of atrial arrhythmia.
 Deep venous thrombosis: Ultrasound confirmation of deep venous thrombosis.
 Myocardial infarction: Confirmed by ECG changes, information with cardiac biomarkers and symptoms of ischaemia.
Gastrointestinal
 Anastomotic leak: Full thickness defect involving esophagus, anastomosis, staple line, or conduit. Detection of saliva, ingested material, gastric secretions, or bile in the drain or wound.
 Conduit necrosis: Identified endoscopically. Extensive conduit necrosis has to be treated by conduit resection with diversion.
 Diaphragmatic hernia: Radiography confirm the presence of abdominal organs in the thoracic cavity, with or without gastrointestinal symptoms.
Vocal cord palsy: Any sign of voice changes or aspiration. Confirmation and assessment should be by direct examination, sometimes laryngoscopy is necessary. Severe injury requiring acute surgical intervention (due to aspiration or respiratory issues).
Chyle leak: Chyle test is positive in the thoracic drainage. Treated with enteric dietary modifications, total parenteral nutrition, and nterventional or surgical therapy.
Wound infection: Local findings of erythema, drainage, subcutaneous emphysema, or tenderness requiring wound opening or antibiotics.
Delirium: Transient confusion confirmed by disturbances in consciousness, cognition, and perception.