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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the immunotherapy group and control group before and after propensity score matching

From: Adjuvant cytokine-induced killer cell immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: a propensity score-matched analysis of real-world data

  Before propensity-matched population After propensity-matched population  
Immunotherapy (n = 59) Control group (n = 158) P value Immunotherapy (n = 59) Control group (n = 59) P value d a
Male sex, N (%) 45 (76.3%) 125 (79.1%) 0.79 45 (76.3%) 46 (78.0%) 1.00 0.040
Age, yrs 57.0 (48.5–62.0) 59.0 (52.0–65.0) 0.28 57.0 (48.5–62.0) 59.0 (52.0–65.0) 0.30 0.158
Treatment modality    1.00    0.37 0.224
 RFA 10 (16.9%) 28 (17.7%)   10 (16.9%) 15 (25.4%)   
 Surgical resection 49 (83.1%) 130 (82.3%)   49 (83.1%) 44 (74.6%)   
HCC stage, N (%)    0.02    0.46 0.170
 Stage I 25 (42.4%) 97 (61.4%)   25 (42.4%) 30 (50.8%)   
 Stage II 34 (57.6%) 61 (38.6%)   34 (57.6%) 29 (49.2%)   
Number of HCC, N (%)    0.64    1.00 < 0.001
 < 3 57 (96.6%) 156 (98.7%)   57 (96.6%) 57 (96.6%)   
 ≥ 3 2 (3.4%) 2 (1.3%)   2 (3.4%) 2 (3.4%)   
Size of HCC, cm 2.9 (2.1–3.9) 2.5 (1.7–3.5) 0.07 2.9 (2.1–3.9) 2.3 (1.9–3.6) 0.23 0.115
Cause of liver disease, N (%)    0.76    1.00 < 0.001
 HBV infection 53 (89.8%) 136 (86.1%)   53 (89.8%) 53 (89.8%)   
 HCV infection 2 (3.4%) 8 (5.1%)   2 (3.4%) 2 (3.4%)   
 Others 4 (6.8%) 14 (8.9%)   4 (6.8%) 4 (6.8%)   
Cirrhosis, N (%) 35 (59.3%) 48 (30.4%) < 0.001 35 (59.3%) 31 (52.5%) 0.58 0.137
α-fetoprotein level, ng/mL 3.8 (2.6–6.2) 3.6 (2.5–7.1) 0.56 3.8 (2.6–6.2) 4.1 (2.7–8.5) 0.67 0.091
PIVKA-II, mAU/mL 20.0 (16.0–23.0) 19.0 (16.0–26.0) 0.52 20.0 (16.0–23.0) 20.0 (15.0–25.5) 0.58 0.102
Aspartate aminotransferase level, IU/L 31.0 (26.0–40.0) 26.0 (22.0–34.0) 0.005 31.0 (26.0–40.0) 29.0 (24.0–37.5) 0.37 0.161
Alanine aminotransferase level, IU/L 30.0 (17.5–38.0) 22.5 (17.0–33.0) 0.12 30.0 (17.5–38.0) 22.0 (18.5–33.0) 0.29 0.206
Alkaline phosphatase level, IU/L 78.0 (65.5–95.0) 85.0 (70.0–101.0) 0.16 78.0 (65.5–95.0) 87.0 (73.0–103.0) 0.06
Albumin level, g/dL 4.2 (4.0–4.5) 4.1 (3.8–4.3) 0.02 4.2 (4.0–4.5) 4.2 (3.8–4.5) 0.70 0.126
Total bilirubin level, mg/dL 0.6 (0.5–0.8) 0.7 (0.6–0.9) 0.01 0.6 (0.5–0.8) 0.7 (0.6–0.9) 0.06 0.245
Prothrombin time, INR 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.39 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.72 0.051
Creatinine level, mg/dL 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.12 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.08
Platelet, ×103/mm3 165.0 (123.0–221.0) 184.5 (136.0–233.0) 0.17 165.0 (123.0–221.0) 158.0 (130.5–200.0) 0.72 0.069
Lymphocyte to monocyte ratio 4.0 (3.0–5.2) 4.4 (3.6–5.7) 0.09 4.4 (3.6–5.7) 4.2 (2.8–5.4) 0.33 0.005
  1. Data are expressed as n (%), median (interquartile range)
  2. RFA radiofrequency ablation, HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, PIVKA-II protein induced by vitamin K absence-II, INR international normalized ratio
  3. aA standardized mean difference (d) of < 0.1 indicated very small differences; 0.1–0.3, small differences; 0.3–0.5, moderate differences; > 0.5, considerable differences