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Table 1 Correlations between CCN3 expression in non-cancerous hepatic tissues and clinicopathological features of HCC patients

From: Paracrine effects of CCN3 from non-cancerous hepatic cells increase signaling and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma

Variable Patients (N = 186)
CCN3high CCN3low p
Age, y
  ≥ 53 70 27 0.759
  < 53 66 23  
Sex    
 Male 26 7 0.418
 Female 110 43  
HBsAg
 Positive 132 46 0.132
 Negative 4 4  
Cirrhosis
 Yes 126 39 0.005
 No 10 11  
AFP (μg/L)
  ≥ 20 94 33 0.712
  < 20 42 17  
Serum, ALT (IU/L)
  ≥ 75 11 10 0.023
  < 75 125 40  
Tumor dimension
  ≥ 5 cm 26 11 0.630
  < 5 cm 112 39  
No. of tumors
 Multiple 7 1 0.356*
 Single 129 49  
Vascular invasion
 Yes 60 12 0.013
 No 76 38  
Tumor encapsulation
 Complete 70 26 0.877
 None 66 24  
  1. *Fisher’s exact tests, and Chi-squared tests for all other analyses
  2. CCN3 median values were used as cut-off points to identify subgroups (low expression and high expression groups). AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma