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Table 1 Characteristics of selected biomarkers

From: CD44, TGM2 and EpCAM as novel plasma markers in endometrial cancer diagnosis

Marker Function Cancers References
ALDH1A1 stem-like cells biomarker involved in dehydrogenation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids; plays role in differentiation, proliferation and motility ovarian, breast, head and neck lung colorectal endometrial (ICH study) Rahadiani et al. [5]
CA9 transmembrane HIF- 1훼-dependent glycoprotein responsible for the regulation of pH in the tumor microenvironment colorectal, gastric, endometrial Hynninen P et al. [6], Sadlecki et al. [7]
CD44 hyaluronic acid receptor, responsible for cell adhesion; affects carcinogenesis through cell migration and metastasis initiation; cancer stem cell marker breast, pancreatic, gastric, hepatocellular, bladder, biliary, vulvar, endometrial (ICH study) Wojciechowski et al. [8], Elbasateeny et al. [9], Yan et al. [10]
EpCAM calcium-independent homophilic cell adhesion molecule of 39–42 kDa, frequently and highly expressed on carcinomas, tumor-initiating cells, selected tissue progenitors, and embryonic and adult stem cells ovarian, breast, uterine serous cancer El-Sahwi et al. [11], Hsu et al. [12]
Hepsin a type II transmembrane serine protease originally identified in the human liver as a cDNA clone; Hepsin mRNA is highly expressed in normal liver tissues, while it is poorly expressed in other tissues, including normal kidney, pancreas, lung, thyroid, pituitary gland and testis prostate, renal, ovarian, endometrial El-Rebey et al. [13]
Matsuo et al. [14]
Kallikrein 6 serine protease with roles in diverse cellular activities, including blood coagulation, wound healing, digestion, and immune responses as well as tumor invasion and metastasis ovarian, uterine serous cancer Santin et al. [15]
Dorn et al. [16]
L1CAM a neuronal cell adhesion transmembrane protein with a strong implication in cell migration, adhesion, neurite outgrowth, myelination and neuronal differentiation; plays a role in migration, invasion, growth metastasis and chemoresistance. ovarian, breast, gastric, melanoma, endometrial, esophageal, colorectal, pancreatic, prostate, neuroblastoma Bosse et al. [17]
Pasanen et al. [18]
Zeimet et al. [19]
Tangen et al. [20]
Mesothelin a cell-surface glycoprotein with normal expression limited to mesothelial cells lining the pleura, peritoneum; the biologic role that MSLN plays in these cells remains unclear; in cancer it increases cellular resistance to anoikis, upregulates matrix metalloproteinases important in cellular invasion and metastasis, and induces secretion of autocrine growth factors malignant mesothelioma, pancreatic, ovarian, lung, endometrial cancer, biliary gastric, pediatric acute myeloid leukemia Dainty et al. [21]
Obulhasim et al. [22]
Midkine a secreted, heparin-binding growth factor; a 13- kDa protein rich in basic amino acids and cysteine; is highly expressed during embryo- genesis; in the adult, the highest transcript levels are in the intestine with low levels in the cerebellum, thyroid, kidney, bladder, lung alveoli, colon, stomach, and spleen; has a role in oncogenic transformation of fibroblasts, antiapoptotic activity, and angiogenic activity breast, lung, esophagus, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, and prostate, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms’ tumor Tanabe et al. [23]
TGM2 predominantly a cytosolic protein, also present in the nucleus, plasma membrane and in the extracellular environment; a marker of cancer development and cancer stem cell-survival ovarian, breast, pancreatic, prostate, glioma, melanoma, lung, colon, leukemia Li et al. [24]
Eckert et al. [25]