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Table 3 Results of per-protocol analysis (N = 37)

From: It’s never too late - balance and endurance training improves functional performance, quality of life, and alleviates neuropathic symptoms in cancer survivors suffering from chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: results of a randomized controlled trial

   T0 median (range) T1 median (range) median difference* (95% CI) P rϕ
Balance performance
 STEO sway path (mm) IG 628 (477 – 1339) 616 (420 – 1261) -76 (-141 – -17) 0.018 0.56
CG 572 (326 – 928) 578 (319 – 809) -6 (-52 – 50) 0.841 0.05
P 0.049 0.327 0.049   
 STEC sway path (mm) IG 1290 (735 – 4661) 1486 (804 – 4885) -32 (-205 – 142) 0.717 0.09
CG 1466 (649 – 3089) 1342 (607 – 2736) 39 (-115 – 160) 0.809 0.06
P 0.781 0.408 0.659   
 MSEO sway path (mm) IG 1755 (1255 – 2440) 1667 (1058 – 3216) -204 (-442 – 178) 0.214 0.41
CG 1510 (844 – 2701) 1303 (711 – 2266) -204 (-367 – 2) 0.056 0.51
P 0.311 0.059 1.000   
 MSEO duration (sec) IG 30 (1 – 30) 30 (18 – 30) 1 (0 – 7) 0.051 0.49
CG 30 (11 – 30) 30 (7 – 30) 0 (0 – 2) 0.500 0.15
P 0.285 0.707 0.230   
 MSEOunstable duration (sec) IG 10 (4 – 30) 30 (5 – 30) 11 (8 – 17) 0.001 0.80
CG 30 (4 – 30) 30 (5 – 30) 0 (0 – 5) 0.223 0.30
P 0.011 0.845 0.000   
Jumping performance
 Pmax_jump (W/kg) IG 23 (15 – 42) 23 (15 – 42) 0.3 (-0.9 – 1.6) 0.569 0.14
CG 28 (16 – 48) 29 (18 – 49) 1.3 (0.2 – 2.2) 0.044 0.50
P 0.019 0.058 0.539   
 Jumping height (cm) IG 21 (13 – 46) 22 (13 – 42) 1 (-0.4 – 3.2) 0.127 0.38
CG 29 (10 – 45) 28 (17 – 47) 2 (0.5 – 3.5) 0.017 0.59
P 0.045 0.068 0.838   
Vibrations sense (scale 0–8)
 First metacarpophalangeal joint IG 2.5 (0.0 – 7.5) 3.4 (0.0 – 8.0) 0.4 (-0.3 – 1.3) 0.139 0.36
CG 4.0 (0.0 – 7.8) 4.5 (0.5 – 6.6) 0.4 (-0.1 – 0.9) 0.083 0.40
P 0.071 0.111 0.950   
 Knuckle IG 3.8 (0.0 – 7.3) 4.1 (0.0 – 8.0) 0.0 (-1.1 – 0.9) 0.977 0.01
CG 4.9 (0.0 – 7.0) 5.4 (0.0 – 7.0) 0.8 (0.3 – 1.3) 0.017 0.55
P 0.471 0.049 0.175   
 Patella IG 5.0 (0.0 – 8.0) 4.3 (0.0 – 7.3) -0.8 (-2.0 – 0.0) 0.041 0.50
CG 4.8 (0.0 – 6.5) 5.6 (0.8 – 7.0) 1.0 (0.4 – 1.6) 0.002 0.71
P 0.196 0.005 0.000   
Quality of life (%)
 Global QoL IG 63 (17 – 100) 79 (33 – 100) 8 (-4 – 17) 0.082 0.39
CG 67 (17 – 100) 67 (50 – 100) 4 (-4 – 13) 0.307 0.23
P 0.845 0.221 0.461   
Subjective CIPN symptoms
 CIPN20 sum score# IG 28 (6 – 85) 20 (9 – 69) -10 (-17 – -4) 0.007 0.65
CG 28 (4 – 70) 24 (4 – 63) -6 (-11 – -1) 0.027 0.52
P 0.782 0.499 0.257   
 CIPN20 sensory score# IG 41 (4 – 85) 26 (4 – 74) -7 (-15 – 0) 0.028 0.53
CG 38 (7 – 74) 30 (7 – 70) -7 (-15 – 0) 0.018 0.56
P 0.935 1.000 0.925   
 CIPN20 motor score# IG 25 (0 – 79) 8 (0 – 63) -8 (-18 – 0) 0.006 0.67
CG 17 (0 – 71) 13 (0 – 62) -2 (-6 – 2) 0.278 0.26
P 0.546 0.916 0.114   
 CIPN20 autonomic score# IG 17 (0 – 83) 0 (0 – 50) -8 (-17 – 0) 0.006 0.65
CG 14 (0 – 83) 17 (0 – 33) -6 (-17 – 0) 0.151 0.34
P 0.791 0.118 0.313   
 CIPN20 upper extremity score# IG 19 (0 – 91) 14 (0 – 81) -7 (-14 – 2) 0.063 0.45
CG 19 (0 – 71) 19 (0 – 62) -3 (-7 – 1) 0.059 0.45
P 0.961 0.641 0.616   
 CIPN20 lower extremity score# IG 33 (8 – 96) 25 (0 – 79) -13 (-19 – -4) 0.007 0.66
CG 29 (8 – 75) 25 (8 – 71) -8 (-15 – -2) 0.014 0.58
P 0.503 0.964 0.552   
 NtxS score IG 29 (11 – 40) 32 (15 – 41) 3 (1 – 6) 0.015 0.59
CG 31 (16 – 39) 31 (19 – 40) 2 (0 – 4) 0.064 0.42
P 0.620 0.940 0.361   
Cardiorespiratory fitness
 V̇O2peak (mL·min−1·kg−1) IG 21 (16 – 35) 23 (17 – 33) 0.2 (-1.7 – 1.7) 0.650 0.15
CG 23 (17 – 54) 25 (16 – 54) 1.4 (-0.4 – 3.5) 0.133 0.35
P 0.369 0.242 0.417   
 Pmax_CPET (W/kg) IG 1.4 (0.9 – 2.4) 1.5 (0.8 – 2.4) 0.1 (0.0 – 0.2) 0.025 0.53
CG 1.6 (0.9 – 3.4) 1.7 (0.9 – 3.5) 0.1 (0.0 – 0.2) 0.004 0.66
P 0.408 0.245 0.443   
 IAT (W/kg) IG 1.1 (0.6 – 2.0) 1.1 (0.6 – 1.8) 0.1 (-0.2 – 0.1) 0.122 0.36
CG 1.1 (0.5 – 2.6) 1.3 (0.8 – 2.6) 0.1 (0.0 – 0.1) 0.020 0.54
P 0.374 0.358 0.707   
  1. Notes: * prescribes the treatment effect by point estimation and 95% confidence interval of the Hodges-Lehmann’s median differences for paired groups; # scoring from 0 (no symptoms) – 100 (severe symptoms); † scoring from 0 (severe symptoms) – 44 (no symptoms); bold type indicates significance P<0.05
  2. Abbreviations: T0 pre intervention, T1 post intervention, CI confidence interval, P p-value, Phi coefficient, STEO/ EC semi-tandem stance with eyes open/closed, MSEO/EOunstable Monopedal stance with eyes open on unstable surface, Pmax_jump/CEPT maximum power output during jumping/CEPT, CEPT cardiopulmonary exercise test, QoL quality of life, CIPN20 module of the EORTC-QLQ (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life) questionnaire, NtxS neurotoxicity subscale of FACT/GOG (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy/Gynaecology Oncology Group), V̇O2peak peak oxygen consumption, IAT individual anaerobic threshold, IG interventions group, CG control group