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Table 2 Relationship of ascorbate levels in tumors with clinicopathological and patient parameters

From: Activation of the hypoxia pathway in breast cancer tissue and patient survival are inversely associated with tumor ascorbate levels

Parameter Ascorbate in tumor tissuea
<mean >mean p valuee
Ethnicity Maori/Pacific 7 1 0.099
non-Maori/non-Pacific 23 18  
undeclared 1 0  
Age < 55 year 16 9 0.500
> 55 years 15 10  
Grade 1 2 8 0.007
2 15 4  
3 14 7  
Tumor Stage 1 11 5 0.769
2 19 13  
3 1 1  
Nottinghamb ≤ 3.4 4 5 0.370
3.41–5.4 14 9  
> 5.4 13 5  
Node negative 11 5 0.500
positive 20 14  
Vascular invasion no 13 10 0.357
yes 18 8  
unknown   1  
Tumor sizec ≤ 2 cm 12 5 0.369
> 2 cm 19 14  
DCIS Necrosis no 8 9 0.055
yes 19 6  
unknown 4 4  
Hormone Receptor statusd HR+ 24 17 0.452
HR- 7 2  
  1. aNumber of patients below (n = 31) or above (n = 19) the mean ascorbate level of 0.2 nmol/μg DNA in tumor tissue
  2. bNottingham prognostic index: calculated from tumor size, number of involved lymph nodes and tumor grade [73], with good, moderate and poor prognosis [74].
  3. cTumor size, invasive component only, excluding DCIS
  4. dHormone receptor HR+, ER+(PR+/−, Her2+/−) and includes both Luminal A and B; HR, ER-PR-(Her2+/−) and includes Her2-enriched and basal-like tumours
  5. eChi-square or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate. Significance is indicated when p < 0.05