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Table 3 Subgroup analyses of GDF-15 testing for CRC based on different covariates

From: Appraising growth differentiation factor 15 as a promising biomarker in digestive system tumors: a meta-analysis

Analysis Sensitivity
[95% CI]
Specificity
[95% CI]
PLR
[95% CI]
NLR
[95% CI]
DOR
[95% CI]
AUC ChI2 (P value)/
I 2
All cancers 0.74 [0.67–0.80] 0.83 [0.75–0.89] 4.45 [2.99–6.60] 0.31 [0.25–0.38] 14.35 [9.13–22.54] 0.85 < 0.001; 99.61%
Cancer type
 PC vs. non-cancer 0.73 [0.66–0.80] 0.76 [0.64–0.85] 3.12 [2.03–4.80] 0.35 [0.27–0.45] 8.92 [5.05–15.77] 0.80 < 0.0001;97.62%
 PC vs. HC 0.71 [0.66–0.75] 0.66 [0.62–0.70] 2.21 [1.58–3.11] 0.38 [0.25–0.59] 6.32 [2.75–14.52] 0.73 0.001;78.4%
 PC vs. Pancreatitis 0.70 [0.63–0.76] 0.66 [0.57–0.75] 2.81 [1.40–5.64] 0.40 [0.28–0.57] 8.86 [4.81–16.31] 0.81 0.8281;0.0%
 PC (stage I-II) vs. non-cancer 0.70 [0.63–0.75] 0.65 [0.61–0.69] 2.04 [1.56–2.68] 0.40 [0.26–0.62] 5.48 [2.58–11.63] 0.76 0.1070;55.2%
 PC (stage III-IV) vs. non-cancer 0.66 [0.56–0.76] 0.74 [0.60–0.86] 3.00 [0.82–11.05] 0.47 [0.35–0.62] 6.67 [2.67–16.69] 0.78 0.2984; 7.5%
 Esophageal carcinoma 0.47 [0.42–0.53] 0.83 [0.80–0.87] 3.83 [1.46–10.05] 0.34 [0.12–0.93] 13.85 [8.19–23.42] 0.84 0.4586; 0.0%
Sample type
 Plasma 0.69 [0.64–0.73] 0.69 [0.62–0.75] 2.21 [1.79–2.73] 0.44 [0.35–0.54] 6.09 [4.00–9.28] 0.78 0.5158; 0.0%
 Serum 0.67 [0.65–0.69] 0.80 [0.78–0.81] 5.25 [3.16–8.71] 0.30 [0.23–0.41] 20.28 [10.12–40.61] 0.87 < 0.0001; 88.9%
Cut-off setting
  ≥ 2000 pg/mL (PC vs. non-cancer) 0.66 [0.60–0.71] 0.74 [0.65–0.82] 2.46 [1.70–3.55] 0.46 [0.37–0.57] 6.16 [3.53–10.74] 0.77 0.3172; 15.3%
 <2000 pg/mL(PC vs. non-cancer) 0.69 [0.66–0.71] 0.73 [0.70–0.75] 3.30 [1.84–5.93] 0.35 [0.26–0.47] 11.98 [4.42–32.49] 0.85 < 0.0001;90.4%
  ≥ 2000 pg/mL (all cancers vs. non-cancer) 0.65 [0.60–0.69] 0.80 [0.73–0.85] 2.91 [1.94–4.37] 0.45 [0.39–0.52] 7.34 [4.52–11.91] 0.77 0.2465; 25.0%
 <2000 pg/mL (all cancers vs. non-cancer) 0.68 [0.66–0.70] 0.78 [0.76–0.80] 4.36 [2.77–6.85] 0.29 [0.22–0.40] 17.79 [9.00–35.18] 0.87 < 0.0001; 88.1%
Ethnicity
 Caucasian 0.75 [0.71–0.78] 0.71 [0.68–0.75] 2.67 [2.10–3.41] 0.32 [0.25–0.41] 9.94 [6.57–15.04] 0.83 0.0335; 46.4%
 Asian 0.65 [0.63–0.67] 0.81 [0.79–0.83] 7.47 [3.21–17.37] 0.36 [0.26–0.52] 22.01 [7.65–63.31] 0.83 < 0.0001;93.7%
  1. Abbreviations: PLR positive likelihood ratio, NLR negative likelihood ratio, DOR diagnostic odds ratio, AUC area under the curve, MT-PCR multiplexed tandem PCR, QUADAS Quality Assessment for Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy, EC esophageal carcinoma, HC healthy control, PC pancreatic cancer, AUC area under the curve