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Table 4 HR of Prostate Cancer in Association with Sex, Age, Occupation, Urbanization level, Comorbidities, and Medication in Univariable and Multivariable Cox Regression Models

From: Sleep disorders associated with risk of prostate cancer: a population-based cohort study

Variable Crude Adjusted
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Sleep disorder 1.51 (1.28, 1.80)*** 1.42 (1.20, 1.69)***
Age, year 1.10 (1.09, 1.11)*** 1.10 (1.09, 1.11)***
Occupation
 White collar 1.00 (Reference) 1.36 (1.06, 1.74)*
 Blue collar 1.46 (1.22, 1.76)*** 1.28 (0.99, 1.65)
 Others 2.21 (1.75, 2.79)*** 1.00 (Reference)
Urbanization level
 1 (highest) 1.43 (1.09, 1.89)* 1.31 (0.99,1 .72)
 2 1.22 (0.92, 1.61) 1.16 (0.88, 1.54)
 3 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
 4 (lowest) 1.73 (1.31, 2.29)*** 1.25 (0.94, 1.66)
Comorbidity
 Hyperlipidemia 2.44 (2.05, 2.91)*** 1.36 (1.13, 1.64)***
 Diabetes 3.32 (2.59, 4.24)*** 1.36 (1.06, 1.76)*
 Hypertension 4.49 (3.77, 5.34)*** 0.94 (0.75, 1.18)
 Urinary stones 1.28 (0.94, 1.74)   
 Urinary tract infection 2.17 (1.66, 2.83)*** 1.07 (0.82, 1.40)
 Obesity 1.07 (0.40, 2.87)   
 Anxiety 1.07 (0.70, 1.65)   
 Depression 1.05 (0.64, 1.73)   
 COPD 3.54 (2.95, 4.26)*** 1.03 (0.85, 1.25)
 Alcohol-related illness 0.85 (0.50, 1.45)   
Medication
 Hypnotics 1.60 (1.33, 1.92)*** 0.83 (0.69, 1.00)
 Antihypertensives 4.29 (3.61, 5.08)*** 1.17 (0.94, 1.46)
 PSA screening 4.38 (3.69, 5.19)*** 1.99 (1.67, 2.36)***
  1. Crude HR, relative hazard ratio; Adjusted HR: multivariable analysis with adjustment for age; occupation category; urbanization level; comorbidities of hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, urinary stones, urinary tract infection, and COPD, and medication of hypnotics as well as antihypertensive medication, and PSA screening; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001