Skip to main content

Table 2 Comparison of Incidence Densities of Prostate Cancer Hazard Ratios of Men With and Without SDs Stratified by Demographic Characteristics and Comorbidities

From: Sleep disorders associated with risk of prostate cancer: a population-based cohort study

  Sleep disorder   
Yes No   
  Event PY Rate# Event PY Rate# Crude HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI)
All 327 342,189 9.56 222 349,060 6.36 1.51(1.28, 1.80)*** 1.42(1.20, 1.69)***
Age
  < 49 14 208,908 0.67 4 214,073 0.19 3.82(1.26, 11.6)* 3.12(1.02, 9.58)*
 50–64 94 79,239 11.9 58 81,376 7.13 1.70(1.23, 2.36)** 1.50(1.08, 2.08)*
  ≥ 65 219 54,042 40.5 160 53,610 29.8 1.36(1.11, 1.67)** 1.35(1.10, 1.65)**
 P for trend         0.23
Occupation
 White collar 146 187,392 7.79 89 193,265 4.61 1.71(1.31, 2.23)*** 1.67(1.28, 2.18)***
 Blue collar 118 118,498 9.96 96 118,302 8.11 1.23(0.94, 1.61) 1.14(0.87, 1.49)
 Others 63 36,300 17.4 37 37,493 9.87 1.77(1.18, 2.66)** 1.56(1.04, 2.36)*
 P for trend         0.06
Urbanization level
 1 (highest) 97 99,276 9.77 74 104,986 7.05 1.40(1.04, 1.90)* 1.30(0.96, 1.77)
 2 88 103,147 8.53 60 104,878 5.72 1.51(1.08, 2.09)* 1.43(1.03, 1.98)*
 3 46 61,671 7.46 26 61,550 4.22 1.78(1.10, 2.88)* 1.79(1.11, 2.91)*
 4 (lowest) 96 78,094 12.3 62 77,646 7.98 1.55(1.12, 2.13)** 1.42(1.03, 1.95)*
 P for trend         0.49
Comorbidity
 No 66 171,700 3.84 29 178,753 1.62 2.43(1.57, 3.76)*** 2.26(1.46, 3.51)***
 Yes 261 170,489 15.3 193 170,307 11.3 1.36(1.13, 1.64)** 1.30(1.08, 1.56)**
 P for trend         0.02
Hyperlipidemia
 No 221 281,496 7.85 141 288,143 4.89 1.62(1.31, 2.00)*** 1.52(1.23, 1.88)***
 Yes 106 60,693 17.5 81 60,918 13.3 1.32(0.99, 1.76) 1.24(0.93, 1.66)
 P for trend         0.27
Diabetes
 No 288 326,577 8.82 188 333,506 5.64 1.58(1.31, 1.90)*** 1.47(1.22, 1.77)***
 Yes 39 15,611 25.0 34 15,555 21.9 1.14(0.72, 1.81) 1.15(0.72, 1.82)
 P for trend         0.21
Hypertension
 No 132 245,636 5.37 70 253,208 2.76 1.99(1.49, 2.65)*** 1.79(1.34, 2.40)***
 Yes 195 96,553 20.2 152 95,853 15.9 1.27(1.03, 1.58)* 1.24(1.00, 1.54)*
 P for trend         0.58
Urinary stones
 No 302 319,449 9.45 203 326,940 6.21 1.54(1.29, 1.83)*** 1.45(1.21, 1.73)***
 Yes 25 22,740 11.0 19 22,120 8.59 1.29(0.71, 2.34) 1.26(0.69, 2.31)
 P for trend         0.60
Urinary tract infection
 No 290 321,203 9.03 197 330,283 5.96 1.53(1.27, 1.83)*** 1.44(1.20, 1.73)***
 Yes 37 20,986 17.6 25 18,777 13.3 1.33(0.80, 2.20) 1.32(0.79, 2.20)
 P for trend         0.60
Obesity
 No 222 346,734 6.40 323 339,663 9.51 1.50(1.26, 1.78)*** 1.40(1.18, 1.66)***
 Yes 0 2326 0.00 4 2525 15.8
 P for trend         0.95
Anxiety
 No 310 329,242 9.42 217 335,558 6.47 1.47(1.23, 1.75)*** 1.39(1.17, 1.65)***
 Yes 17 12,947 13.1 5 13,502 3.70 3.53(1.30, 9.58)* 2.72(0.99, 7.48)
 P for trend         0.09
Depression
 No 317 332,890 9.52 216 339,164 6.37 1.51(1.27, 1.79)*** 1.43(1.20, 1.70)***
 Yes 10 9299 10.8 6 9897 6.06 1.82(0.66, 5.00) 1.15(0.41, 3.28)
P for trend         0.74
COPD
 No 233 304,824 7.64 156 313,361 4.98 1.55(1.27, 1.90)*** 1.44(1.17, 1.76)***
 Yes 94 37,365 25.2 66 35,699 18.5 1.36(0.99, 1.86) 1.35(0.99, 1.85)
P for trend         0.50
Alcohol-related illness
 No 318 331,360 9.60 217 338,475 6.41 1.51(1.27, 1.79)*** 1.41(1.19, 1.68)***
 Yes 9 10,829 8.31 5 10,585 4.72 1.74(0.58, 5.20) 2.72(0.81, 9.11)
 P for trend         0.80
Medication
Hypnotics
 No 97 143,651 6.75 68 142,627 4.77 1.42(1.04, 1.93)* 1.46(1.07, 1.99)*
 Yes 230 198,538 11.6 154 206,434 7.46 1.57(1.28, 1.93)*** 1.42(1.15, 1.74)***
 P for trend         0.59
Antihypertensives
 No 140 252,468 5.55 82 260,095 3.15 1.79(1.36, 2.35)*** 1.66(1.26, 2.19)***
 Yes 187 89,721 20.8 140 88,966 15.7 1.33(1.07, 1.65)* 1.28(1.02, 1.59)*
 P for trend         0.11
PSA screening
 No 193 289,171 6.67 126 305,769 4.12 1.60(1.28, 2.01)*** 1.58(1.26, 1.98)***
 Yes 134 53,018 25.3 96 43,292 22.2 1.18(0.91, 1.54) 1.20(0.92, 1.56)
 P for trend         0.047
  1. Rate#, incidence rate per 10,000 person-years; Crude HR, relative hazard ratio
  2. Adjusted HR: multivariable analysis with adjustment for age; occupation category; urbanization level; comorbidities of hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, urinary stones, urinary tract infection, obesity, anxiety, depression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and alcohol-related illness, and medication of hypnotics as well as antihypertensive medication, and PSA screening; Comorbidity: Only one comorbidity (including hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, urinary stones, urinary tract infection, obesity, anxiety, and depression) classified as the comorbidity group
  3. P < .05, **P < .01, ***P < .001