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Fig. 1 | BMC Cancer

Fig. 1

From: Cancer-associated fibroblasts induce epithelial–mesenchymal transition of bladder cancer cells through paracrine IL-6 signalling

Fig. 1

Healthy vesical primary fibroblasts (HFs) treated with bladder cancer-derived exosomes exhibit characteristics of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). HFs were treated with 1 mg/mL of bladder cancer cells-derived exosomes for 48 h to induce their activation in CAFs (iCAFs). HFs treated with TGFβ1 (4 ng/mL) served as a positive control. a. Cells were examined by immunocytochemistry for the expression of αSMA (α-smooth muscle actin, green). Nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue). Scale bar = 100 μm. b. The protein expression of αSMA, fibroblast-activating protein (FAP) was determined by western blot. The tubulin was used as loading control. The graph shows mean +/− SD. The difference between groups was analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc analysis using Dunnett’s multiple comparison tests. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ****P < 0.0001, n = 3

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