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Table 2 Co-factors contributing to HPV-mediated carcinogenesis recognised by IARC

From: Role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a co-factor in human papillomavirus-mediated carcinogenesis

Co-factors of HPV References
Tobacco smoking [30,31,32,33]
Hormonal contraception [31, 34,35,36]
Number of pregnancies [30, 37,38,39]
Nutrition/Dietary intake [40,41,42]
Immunosuppression [43,44,45]
Other infectious agent/inflammation [46,47,48,49]