Skip to main content

Table 2 Efficacy and safety parameters according to COMT rs4680 polymorphism in the 87 subjects included in the STOP Pain Project

From: Opioid response in paediatric cancer patients and the Val158Met polymorphism of the human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene: an Italian study on 87 cancer children and a systematic review

  Overall G/G A/G A/A p-value
Opioids
 Dose (mg/kg)
  Dose24h
   mean (95% CI) 0.38 (0.33–0.42) 0.41 (0.30–0.52) 0.39 (0.33–0.45) 0.36 (0.23–0.48)  
   median (interquartile range) 0.41 (0.19–0.50) 0.43 (0.16–0.57) 0.42 (0.24–0.49) 0.43 (0.19–0.46) 0.921*
  Dosetot
   mean (95% CI) 2.57 (2.17–2.96) 3.34 (2.45–4.23) 2.35 (1.83–2.87) 2.24 (1.11–3.37)  
   median (interquartile range) 2.18 (1.20–3.50) 3.25 (1.73–5.23) 2.02 (1.26–2.97) 2.18 (1.06–3.07) 0.119*
  DoseVAS = 0
   mean (95% CI) 0.41 (0.27–0.55) 0.59 (0.18–1.01) 0.35 (0.22–0.48) 0.39 (0.03–0.75)  
   median (interquartile range) 0.26 (0.10–0.49) 0.36 (0.07–0.74) 0.21 (0.11–0.47) 0.25 (0.10–0.41) 0.568*
Pain Intensity
 ∆ VAS, N (%)
   ≤ 2 46 (54.12) 15 (62.50) 20 (50.00) 6 (46.15) 0.533**
   ≥ 2 39 (45.88) 9 (37.50) 20 (50.00) 7 (53.85)
 Time tot (hours)      
  mean (95% CI) 140.43 (126.81–154.05) 166.87 (143.42–190.33) 133.67 (111.87–155.46) 116.61 (87.64–145.59) 0.042***
  median (interquartile range) 133.00 (99.00–192.00) 190.50 (139.25–199.00) 130.00 (96.00–185.50) 120.00 (76.00–144.00)  
Side effects, N (%)a
 Gastrointestinalb 23 (26.44) 8 (33.33) 9 (21.43) 3 (23.08) 0.553**
 CNSc 10 (11.49) 2 (8.33) 4 (9.52) 2 (15.38) 0.780**
 Totald 32 (36.78) 10 (41.67) 14 (33.33) 4 (30.77) 0.736**
Morphine
 Dose (mg/kg)
  Dose24h
   mean (95% CI) 0.49 (0.45–0.53) 0.55 (0.44–0.66) 0.47 (0.41–0.52) 0.49 (0.38–0.60)  
   median (interquartile range) 0.46 (0.41–0.57) 0.50 (0.43–0.65) 0.46 (0.40–0.55) 0.46 (0.43–0.60) 0.170*
  Dosetot
   mean (95% CI) 3.19 (2.72–3.67) 4.39 (3.49–5.30) 2.75 (2.14–3.35) 3.04 (1.48–4.60)  
   median (interquartile range) 2.93 (1.82–4.42) 4.52 (3.25) 2.23 (1.72–3.40) 2.98 (1.70–3.33) 0.050*
  DoseVAS = 0
   mean (95% CI) 0.54 (0.35–0.74) 0.88 (0.28–1.49) 0.41 (0.25–0.56) 0.56 (0.00–1.16)  
   median (interquartile range) 0.36 (0.17–0.60) 0.54 (0.36–0.96) 0.26 (0.14–0.52) 0.37 (0.20–0.48) 0.257*
Pain Intensity
 ∆ VAS, N (%)
   ≤ 2 29 (49.15) 10 (62.50) 16 (51.61) 2 (25.00) 0.221**
   ≥ 2 30 (50.85) 6 (37.50) 15 (48.39) 6 (75.00)
 Time tot (hours)
  mean (95% CI) 147.96 (131.56–164.36) 174.62 (149.82–199.43) 139.53 (113.56–165.50) 134.00 (96.72–171.28) 0.154***
  median (interquartile range) 142.50 (101.50–193.50) 190.50 (150.00–199.00) 130.25 (100.5–188.75) 123.50 (99.50–173.25)  
Side effects, N (%)a
 Gastrointestinalb 14 (23.33) 5 (31.25) 6 (18.75) 2 (25.00) 0.621**
 CNSc 6 (10.00) 1 (6.25) 2 (6.25) 1 (12.50) 0.817**
 Totald 19 (31.67) 6 (37.57) 9 (28.13) 2 (25.00) 0.752**
  1. Opioids: morphine equivalents (patients that used more than one opioid)
  2. Morphine: patients that used only morphine
  3. Dose24h: total dose (mg/kg) of intravenous (IV) morphine equivalents (ME) administered during the titration phase; Dosetot: total dose (mg/kg) of IV ME; DoseVAS = 0: mean dose (mg/kg) required to achieve total pain relief
  4. PIto: pain intensity before treatment, measured with FLACC (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability) or VAS (Visual Analogic Scale) numeric scale or WONG & BAKER Pain Rating Scale (range: 0–10); ∆ VAS: difference between the pain intensity after 24 h of treatment and PIto; Time tot: time in hours to reach the lowest pain intensity possible
  5. a N, number of patients who experienced that ADR; each patient could have experienced more than one ADRs
  6. b Gastrointestinal effects included nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation
  7. c CNS: Central Nervous System effects included agitation, drowsiness, headache, and sedation
  8. d Total number of patients with gastrointestinal and/or central nervous system effects, and/or itching
  9. * p-value from Pearson chi-squared test of the equality of the medians
  10. ** p-value form ANOVA
  11. *** p-value from chi-squared test