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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample by geographical location (N = 792)

From: Geographical disparities in treatment and health care costs for end-of-life cancer patients in China: a retrospective study

Characteristics Urban
(n = 195)
Rural
(n = 597)
p- value Western
(n = 162)
Central
(n = 242)
Eastern
(n = 388)
p - value
n % mean (SD) n % mean (SD)   n % mean (SD) n % mean (SD) n % Mean (SD)
Gender    NA    NA 0.00    NA    NA    NA 0.35
 Male 116 59.49   423 70.85    110 67.90   173 71.49   256 65.98   
 Female 79 40.51   174 29.15    52 32.10   69 28.51   132 34.02   
Age    64.75 (14.42)    64.01 (12.78) 0.49    61.15 (12.86)    64.29 (13.35)    65.42 (13.06) 0.01
 Age < 45 15 7.69   44 7.37    20 12.35   18 7.44   21 5.41   
 Age 45–54 37 18.97   77 12.90    28 17.28   33 13.64   53 13.66   
 Age 55–64 40 20.51   174 29.15    53 32.72   65 26.86   96 24.74   
 Age 65–74 48 24.62   169 28.31    36 22.22   71 29.34   110 28.35   
 Age 75- 55 28.21   133 22.28    25 15.43   55 22.70   108 27.84   
Marriages    NA    NA 0.08    NA    NA    NA 0.02
 Married 156 80   501 83.92    144 88.89   204 84.30   309 79.64   
 Other (unmarried/widowed/divorced) 39 20   96 16.08    18 11.11   38 15.70   79 20.36   
Nation    NA    NA 0.22    NA    NA    NA  
 Han 188 96.41   562 94.14    125 77.16   240 99.17   385 99.20   0.00
 Minority 7 3.59   35 5.86    37 22.84   2 0.83   3 0.77   
Residence    NA    NA NA    NA    NA    NA 0.00
 Urban NA NA   NA NA    47 29.01   28 11.57   120 30.93   
 Rural NA NA   NA NA    115 70.99   214 88.43   268 69.07   
Occupation    NA    NA 0.00    NA    NA    NA 0.00
 Farmer 37 18.97   476 79.73    106 65.43   178 73.55   229 59.02   
 Steady workers 27 13.85   42 7.04    12 7.41   21 8.68   36 9.28   
 Non-regular workers 55 28.21   55 9.21    19 11.73   28 11.57   63 16.24   
 The retired 76 38.97   24 4.02    25 15.43   15 6.20   60 15.46   
Annual per-capita income ($)a    28.05 (31.29)    10.78 (14.06) 0.00    16.91 (17.50)    8.90 (17.13)    18.07 (23.67) 0.00
 Low income level (≤ $421) 14 7.18   165 27.64    15 9.26   83 34.30   81 20.88   
 Below average level($422–$1505) 42 21.54   283 47.40    76 46.91   117 48.35   132 34.02   
 Average level ($1506–$4015) 61 31.28   80 13.40    40 24.69   24 9.92   77 19.85   
 Above average level (≥$4016) 78 40.00   69 11.56    31 19.14   18 7.43   98 25.26   
The nearest medical institutions    NA    NA 0.00    NA    NA    NA 0.00
 Village clinics 1 0.51   283 47.40    58 35.80   67 27.69   159 40.98   
 Town health center 5 2.56   113 18.93    11 6.79   67 27.69   40 10.31   
 County hospital 53 27.18   120 20.10    55 33.95   33 13.64   85 21.91   
 Municipal level or above hospitals 110 56.41   5 0.84    28 17.28   14 5.79   73 18.81   
 Private clinic 1 0.51   57 9.55    0 0.00   56 23.14   2 0.52   
 Other 25 12.82   19 3.18    0 0.00   5 2.07   0 0.00   
Distance to the nearest medical institutions    2.77 (2.58)    2.70 (4.19) 0.83    3.62 (5.86)    3.10 (3.77)    2.11 (2.50) 0.00
 < 1 km 29 14.87   195 32.66    37 22.84   44 18.18   143 36.86   
 1-5 km 137 70.26   301 50.42    93 57.41   146 60.33   199 51.29   
 >5 km 29 14.87   100 16.92    32 19.75   52 21.49   46 11.85   
  1. aBased on a currency exchange rate of the 6.6423 yuan to US$1.00 in 2016