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Table 2 Multiple regression analysis of the association between nutrition labeling awareness and subject characteristics

From: Association between awareness of nutrition labeling and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in cancer survivors and the general population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2016

Variables RR 95% CI P-value
Awareness on nutrition labelling     
 Checks nutrition facts and makes labeling-dependent purchase decisions 1.0012 0.9995 1.0030 0.1785
 Checks nutrition facts but does not make labeling-dependent purchase decisions/ Aware of nutrition facts but does not check them when making food purchase decisions 1.0017 1.0004 1.0031 0.0131
Unaware of nutrition facts 1.0000
Cancer     
 Cancer Survivor 0.9985 0.9950 1.0020 0.3928
 General population 1.0000
Sex     
 Male 0.9965 0.9951 0.9978 <.0001
 Female 1.0000
Age (years)     
 30–39 1.0032 1.0013 1.0051 0.0010
 40–49 1.0036 1.0018 1.0053 <.0001
 50–59 1.0026 1.0009 1.0042 0.0024
 60+ 1.0000
Educational level     
 Under high school graduation 1.0005 0.9980 1.0029 0.7066
 Bachelor’s degree 1.0014 0.9991 1.0038 0.2356
 Master’s degree or above 1.0000
Household income     
 Low 0.9993 0.9975 1.0011 0.4727
 Mid-low 1.0012 0.9998 1.0026 0.0927
 Mid-high 1.0012 0.9999 1.0025 0.0694
 High 1.0000
BMI     
  < 23 1.0019 1.0007 1.0032 0.0024
 23–25 1.0020 1.0007 1.0034 0.0035
  > 25 1.0000
Aerobic exercise habits     
 Yes 1.0000
 No 1.0002 0.9990 1.0013 0.7728
Smoking status     
 Non-smoker 1.0000
 Smoker 0.9956 0.9942 0.9970 <.0001
High-risk drinking     
 No 1.0000
 Yes 1.0047 1.0030 1.0065 <.0001
Family history for hyperlipidemia     
 No 1.0000
 Yes 0.9978 0.9955 1.0001 0.0604
Survey year 0.9993 0.9991 0.9996 <.0001
Stress awareness     
 Low 1.0000
 High 0.9998 0.9987 1.0010 0.7951
Subjective health status     
 Good 1.0001 0.9985 1.0017 0.8931
 Normal 0.9997 0.9983 1.0012 0.7262
 Bad 1.0000
The frequency of eating out     
 More than five times a week 1.0000
 Less than four times a week 1.0017 1.0005 1.0029 0.0060
Average amount of total energy intake (per 100 Kcal) 1.0004 1.0003 1.0006 <.0001
Average amount of daily carbohydrate intake (per 10 g) 0.9998 0.9997 0.9999 <.0001
Average amount of daily fat intake (per 10 g) 0.9995 0.9992 0.9998 0.0008
Total cholesterol (per 10 mg/dL) 1.2096 1.2090 1.2102 <.0001
Triglyceride (per 10 mg/dL) 0.9620 0.9619 0.9621 <.0001
LDL cholesterol(mg/dL) 0.9813 0.9813 0.9814 <.0001
  1. BMI body mass index, LDL low-density lipoprotein