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Table 1 Clinical and pathological characteristics of all patients stratified by total and free testosterone

From: Free testosterone value before radical prostatectomy is related to oncologic outcomes and post-operative erectile function

  All Total T Free T
Low Normal p value Low Normal p value
Patients, no.(%) 586(100) 106(18.1) 480(81.9)   152(25.9) 434(74.1)  
General information
Age, no.(%)     < 0.001*    < 0.001*
< 70 297(50.7) 25(23.6) 272(56.7)   51(33.6) 246(56.7)  
≥ 70 289(49.3) 81(76.4) 208(43.3)   101(66.4) 188(43.3)  
Age, mean ± SD   71.73 ± 6.19 66.80 ± 8.07 < 0.001* 70.26 ± 7.18 66.79 ± 8.06 < 0.001*
BMI, mean ± SD   23.54 ± 3.63 23.40 ± 3.57 0.803 23.95 ± 3.50 23.46 ± 3.60 0.153
Diabetes, no.(%)     0.018*    0.049*
 Absent 480(81.9) 78(73.6) 402(83.8)   116(76.3) 364(83.9)  
 Present 106(18.1) 28(26.4) 78(16.2)   36(23.7) 70(16.1)  
Hypertension, no.(%)     0.764    0.895
 Absent 498(85.0) 89(84.0) 409(85.2)   130(85.5) 368(84.8)  
 Present 88(15.0) 17(16.0) 71(14.4)   22(14.5) 66(15.2)  
Coronary heart disease, no.(%)     0.316    0.460
 Absent 519(88.6) 91(85.8) 428(89.2)   132(86.8) 387(89.2)  
 Present 67(11.4) 15(14.2) 52(10.8)   20(13.2) 47(10.8)  
Smoking, no.(%)     0.301    0.426
 Absent 495(84.5) 86(81.1) 409(85.2)   133(87.5) 366(84.3)  
 Present 91(15.5) 20(18.9) 71(14.8)   19(12.5) 68(15.7)  
Alcohol consumption, no.(%)     0.001*    0.071
 Absent 430(73.4) 63(59.4) 367(76.5)   103(67.8) 327(75.3)  
 Present 156(26.6) 43(40.6) 113(23.5)   49(32.2) 107(24.7)  
Pre-operative ED, no.(%)     < 0.001*    < 0.001*
 ED absent 376(64.2) 44(41.5) 332(69.2)   76(50.0) 300(69.1)  
 ED present 210(35.8) 62(58.5) 148(30.8)   76(50.0) 134(30.9)  
Pre-operative tumor characteristics
PSA, no.(%)     < 0.001*    < 0.001*
  < 10 ng/ml 214(36.5) 11(10.4) 203(42.3)   35(23.0) 179(41.2)  
  ≥ 10 ng/ml 372(63.5) 95(89.6) 277(57.7)   117(77.0) 255(58.8)  
PSA, mean ± SD   16.34 ± 6.81 13.06 ± 6.90 < 0.001* 15.10 ± 6.92 13.14 ± 6.95 < 0.001*
Proportion of free-PSA, no.(%)     0.155    0.297
  < 0.16 419(71.5) 82(77.4) 337(70.2)   114(75.0) 305(70.3)  
  ≥ 0.16 167(28.5) 24(22.6) 143(29.8)   38(25.0) 129(29.7)  
Proportion of free-PSA, mean ± SD   0.124 ± 0.060 0.139 ± 0.067 0.022* 0.132 ± 0.070 0.137 ± 0.064 0.144
Clinical tumor stage, no.(%)     < 0.001*    < 0.001*
 T2a 79(13.5) 15(14.2) 64(13.3)   17(11.2) 62(14.3)  
 T2b 154(26.3) 20(18.9) 134(27.9)   26(17.1) 128(29.5)  
 T2c 219(37.4) 30(28.3) 189(39.4)   56(36.8) 163(37.6)  
 T3 134(22.9) 41(38.7) 93(19.4)   53(34.9) 81(18.7)  
Biopsy Gleason Score, no.(%)     < 0.001*    < 0.001*
 6 143(24.4) 10(9.4) 133(27.7)   16(10.5) 127(29.3)  
 7 295(50.3) 52(49.1) 243(50.6)   76(50.0) 219(50.5)  
 8 or higher 148(25.3) 44(41.5) 104(21.7)   60(39.5) 88(20.3)  
Post-operative information
Surgical approach, no.(%)     0.067    0.257
 Open 272(46.4) 58(54.7) 214(44.6)   77(50.7) 195(44.9)  
 Laparoscopic 314(53.6) 48(45.3) 266(55.4)   75(49.3) 239(55.1)  
NVB preserve, no.(%)     0.913    0.771
 Not preserved 224(38.2) 41(38.7) 183(38.1)   60(39.5) 164(37.8)  
 Preserved 362(61.8) 65(61.3) 297(61.9)   92(60.5) 270(62.2)  
Pathological tumor stage, no.(%)     0.006*    < 0.001*
 T2a 76(13.0) 13(12.3) 63(13.1)   13(8.6) 63(14.5)  
 T2b 150(25.6) 18(17.0) 132(27.5)   28(18.4) 122(28.1)  
 T2c 180(30.7) 28(26.4) 152(31.7)   41(27.0) 139(32.0)  
 T3 180(30.7) 47(44.3) 133(27.7)   70(46.1) 110(25.3)  
Final Gleason Score, no.(%)     < 0.001*    < 0.001*
 6 126(21.5) 10(9.4) 116(24.2)   11(7.2) 115(26.5)  
 7 259(44.2) 23(21.7) 236(49.2)   47(30.9) 212(48.8)  
 8 or higher 201(34.3) 73(68.9) 128(26.7)   94(61.8) 107(24.7)  
Seminal invasion, no.(%)     0.022*    0.026*
 Absent 563(96.1) 97(91.5) 466(97.1)   141(92.8) 422(97.2)  
 Present 23(3.9) 9(8.5) 14(2.9)   11(7.2) 12(2.8)  
PSM, no.(%)     0.128    0.094
 Absent 536(91.5) 93(87.7) 443(92.3)   134(88.2) 402(92.6)  
 Present 50(8.5) 13(12.3) 37(7.7)   18(11.8) 34(7.8)  
Lymph node status, no.(%)     0.003*    0.001*
 N- 225(38.4) 52(49.1) 173(36.0)   68(44.7) 157(36.2)  
 Nx 336(57.3) 46(43.4) 290(60.4)   71(46.7) 265(61.1)  
 N+ 25(4.3) 8(7.5) 17(3.6)   13(8.6) 12(2.8)  
Post-operative ED, no.(%)     0.001*    < 0.001*
 ED absent 197(33.6) 13(12.3) 184(38.3)   22(14.5) 175(40.3)  
 ED present 179(30.5) 31(29.2) 148(30.8)   54(35.5) 125(28.8)  
Post-operative incontinence, no.(%)     0.506    0.662
 Absent 511(87.2) 94(88.7) 417(86.9)   134(88.2) 377(86.9)  
 Present 69(11.8) 10(9.4) 59(12.3)   16(10.5) 53(12.2)  
  1. PSA prostate-specific antigen; BMI body mass index; ED erectile dysfunction; NVB neurovascular bundle; PSM positive surgical margin
  2. p value of less than 0.05 are in boldface
  3. *Statistically significant