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Table 4 Univariate analysis of predictors for pCR in the training and validation cohorts

From: CEA clearance pattern as a predictor of tumor response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer: a post-hoc analysis of FOWARC trial

Variable Training cohort Validation cohort
pCR No pCR P pCR No pCR P
No. of patients 11 60   10 65  
Age (mean, y ± SD) 57 ± 12 54 ± 13 0.323 55 ± 13 55 ± 12 0.910
Gender    0.618    0.497
 Male 8 (73%) 39 (65%)   6 (60%) 28 (43%)  
 Female 3 (27%) 21 (35%)   4 (40%) 37 (57%)  
Pretreatment T stage    0.267    0.546
 T2 0 0   1 (10%) 5 (8%)  
 T3 10 (9%) 42 (70%)   9 (90%) 53 (81%)  
 T4 1 (91%) 18 (30%)   0 7 (11%)  
Pretreatment N stage    0.217    0.121
 N0 2 (18%) 10 (17%)   4 (40%) 17 (26%)  
 N1 7 (64%) 23 (38%)   6 (60%) 28 (43%)  
 N2 2 (18%) 27 (45%)   0 20 (31%)  
Tumor differentiation    0.073    0.707
 Well/Moderately 8 (73%) 26 (43%)   7 (70%) 49 (75%)  
 Poorly/Undifferentiated 3 (27%) 34 (57%)   3 (30%) 16 (25%)  
Distance from the anal verge    0.301    0.731
5 cm 7 (64%) 28 (53%)   3 (30%) 27 (42%)  
  > 5 cm 4 (36%) 32 (47%)   7 (70%) 38 (58%)  
Tumor length    0.044    0.509
4 cm 8 (73%) 22 (37%)   3 (30%) 28 (43%)  
  > 4 cm 3 (27%) 38 (63%)   7 (70%) 37 (57%)  
Circumferential extent    0.441    0.480
50% 4 (36%) 13 (22%)   5 (50%) 22 (34%)  
  > 50% 7 (64%) 47 (78%)   5 (50%) 43 (66%)  
 Pre-treatment CEA level (mean, ng/mL; 95%CI) 24 (10–38) 28 (19–37) 0.709 13 (11–15) 20 (10–30) 0.165
 Post- treatment CEA level (mean, ng/mL; 95%CI) 2 (0.2–4) 6 (4–8) 0.164 6 (2–11) 6 (5–7) 0.808
Normalization of post- treatment CEA Level    0.312    1.000
 Normal (< 5 ng/mL) 9 (82%) 38 (63%)   6 (60%) 40 (62%)  
 Elevated (5 ng/mL) 2 (18%) 22 (37%)   4 (40%) 25 (38%)  
CEA clearance pattern    0.008    0.042
 Exponential decrease (R20.9) 9 (82%) 22 (37%)   8 (80%) 28 (43%)  
 Non-exponential decrease (R2 < 0.9) 2 (18%) 38 (63%)   2 (20%) 37 (57%)  
Concurrent chemotherapy    0.743    NA
 Capecitabine 0 0   10 (13%) 65 (87%)  
 Infusional fluorouracil 7 (64%) 32 (47%)   0 0  
 mFOLFOX6 4 (36%) 28 (53%)   0 0  
  1. Abbreviation: NA not applicable, pCR pathologic complete response
  2. The p value in boldface means statistically significant, that is, less than 0.05